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MeSH Review

Facial Muscles

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Disease relevance of Facial Muscles


High impact information on Facial Muscles

  • During embryonic development, cav3 expression is apparent by early segmentation stages in the first differentiating muscle precursors, the adaxial cells and slightly later in the notochord. cav3 expression appears in the somites during mid-segmentation stages and then later in the pectoral fins and facial muscles [6].
  • METHODS: Ninety-two healthy adults engaged in stress-challenge tasks, during which cardiovascular responses, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis responses (i.e., cortisol), emotional expressions (i.e., facial muscle movements), and subjective emotional experience (self-reported) were assessed [7].
  • Surprisingly, mutation of these elements results in ectopic ANF promoter activity in the kidneys, facial muscles, and aortic arch artery-associated muscles, and causes persistent expression in the ventricle and outflow tract of the heart [8].
  • Shortened cortical silent period in facial muscles of patients with cranial dystonia [9].
  • Surprisingly, however, X-gal staining showed that, in this mutant, hyoid arch-derived facial muscles were either reduced or absent, thus revealing that Met also contributes to the development of muscles in the head [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Facial Muscles


Biological context of Facial Muscles

  • Boiten (1996) used the Directed Facial Action task (a task we developed in which participants follow instructions, based on theory about how emotion is expressed in the face, to move facial muscles deliberately to produce different facial configurations) to investigate heart rate differences among six emotional configurations [12].
  • Denervated rat facial muscle displayed distinct up-regulation of ubiquitin, alpha-B-crystallin, N-CAM, and tenascin [13].
  • There was an absence of heart rate or blood pressure changes after injection of relaxant and a variable and inconsistent fade response to train-of-four and tetanic stimulus of the facial muscles [14].
  • The role of acetylcholine and the role of DMAE as a modulator of acetylcholine-mediated functions in the skin remain to be elucidated.Thus, the benefits of DMAE in dermatology include a potential anti-inflammatory effect and a documented increase in skin firmness with possible improvement in underlying facial muscle tone [15].

Anatomical context of Facial Muscles


Associations of Facial Muscles with chemical compounds

  • Finally, the time course of the accelerative effect of TP suggests that the hormone is acting primarily at the level of the facial neuron, which contains androgen receptors, and perhaps secondarily at the level of the facial muscles, which are also known to contain androgen receptors [19].
  • To test this notion, we used focal transcranial magnetic brain stimulation to quantify crossed and uncrossed cortico-muscular projections to 6 different facial muscles (right and left Mm. frontalis, nasalis, and orbicularis oris) in 36 healthy right-handed volunteers (15 men, 21 women, mean age 25 years) [20].
  • The same HFS failed to evoke visible side effects such as stepping, turning, raising of the head or facial muscle contraction in the absence of treadmill movement, or to change rotational behaviors elicited by the dopamine (DA) agonist apomorphine in unilateral lesioned rats [21].
  • The facial muscles were less affected objectively by atracurium than was the hind limb [22].
  • 3. During periods of elevated facial muscle activity, fentanyl or butorphanol decreased SEMG amplitude [23].

Gene context of Facial Muscles


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Facial Muscles


  1. MuSK antibody positive myasthenia gravis plasma modifies MURF-1 expression in C2C12 cultures and mouse muscle in vivo. Benveniste, O., Jacobson, L., Farrugia, M.E., Clover, L., Vincent, A. J. Neuroimmunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  2. Subregions of the caudate nucleus and their in- and output channels in oro-facial dyskinesia: a behavioural and retrograde tracing study in the cat. Spooren, W.P., Groenewegen, H.J., Cools, A.R. Brain Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. Repetitive nerve stimulation of facial muscles in MuSK antibody-positive myasthenia gravis. Oh, S.J., Hatanaka, Y., Hemmi, S., Young, A.M., Scheufele, M.L., Nations, S.P., Lu, L., Claussen, G.C., Wolfe, G.I. Muscle Nerve (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Life-threatening respiratory failure due to cranial dystonia after dental procedure in a patient with multiple system atrophy. Hamzei, F., Rijntjes, M., Gbadamosi, J., Fuchs, K., Weiller, C., Münchau, A. Mov. Disord. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. Dystonia as a presenting feature of the 3243 mitochondrial DNA mutation. Sudarsky, L., Plotkin, G.M., Logigian, E.L., Johns, D.R. Mov. Disord. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Zebrafish as a model for caveolin-associated muscle disease; caveolin-3 is required for myofibril organization and muscle cell patterning. Nixon, S.J., Wegner, J., Ferguson, C., Méry, P.F., Hancock, J.F., Currie, P.D., Key, B., Westerfield, M., Parton, R.G. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Facial expressions of emotion reveal neuroendocrine and cardiovascular stress responses. Lerner, J.S., Gonzalez, R.M., Dahl, R.E., Hariri, A.R., Taylor, S.E. Biol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Transgenic analysis of the atrialnatriuretic factor (ANF) promoter: Nkx2-5 and GATA-4 binding sites are required for atrial specific expression of ANF. Small, E.M., Krieg, P.A. Dev. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Shortened cortical silent period in facial muscles of patients with cranial dystonia. Currà, A., Romaniello, A., Berardelli, A., Cruccu, G., Manfredi, M. Neurology (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Analysis of Mlc-lacZ Met mutants highlights the essential function of Met for migratory precursors of hypaxial muscles and reveals a role for Met in the development of hyoid arch-derived facial muscles. Prunotto, C., Crepaldi, T., Forni, P.E., Ieraci, A., Kelly, R.G., Tajbakhsh, S., Buckingham, M., Ponzetto, C. Dev. Dyn. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Treating obstructive sleep apnea and snoring: assessment of an anterior mandibular positioning device. Clark, G.T., Sohn, J.W., Hong, C.N. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939) (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Difficulty does not account for emotion-specific heart rate changes in the directed facial action task. Levenson, R.W., Ekman, P. Psychophysiology. (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Expression profile of stress proteins, intermediate filaments, and adhesion molecules in experimentally denervated and reinnervated rat facial muscle. Tews, D.S., Goebel, H.H., Schneider, I., Gunkel, A., Stennert, E., Neiss, W.F. Exp. Neurol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of pancuronium bromide in calves anesthetized with halothane. Hildebrand, S.V., Howitt, G.A. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  15. The role of dimethylaminoethanol in cosmetic dermatology. Grossman, R. American journal of clinical dermatology. (2005) [Pubmed]
  16. Monosynaptic innervation of facial motoneurones by neurones of the parvicellular reticular formation. Mogoseanu, D., Smith, A.D., Bolam, J.P. Experimental brain research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation cérébrale. (1994) [Pubmed]
  17. Topical papaverine and facial nerve dysfunction in cerebellopontine angle surgery. Eisenman, D.J., Digoy, G.P., Victor, J.D., Selesnick, S.H. The American journal of otology. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. The simultaneous use of electrocochleogram, brainstem auditory evoked potential and facial muscle EMG in cerebellopontine angle tumor removal. Hsu, J.C., Lui, T.N., Yu, C.L., Chen, Y.C., Chang, C.N., Tan, P.P. J. Formos. Med. Assoc. (1992) [Pubmed]
  19. Testosterone-induced acceleration of recovery from facial paralysis following crush axotomy of the facial nerve in male hamsters. Kujawa, K.A., Kinderman, N.B., Jones, K.J. Exp. Neurol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Uncrossed cortico-muscular projections in humans are abundant to facial muscles of the upper and lower face, but may differ between sexes. Fischer, U., Hess, C.W., Rösler, K.M. J. Neurol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. High frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves treadmill locomotion in unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned rats. Chang, J.Y., Shi, L.H., Luo, F., Woodward, D.J. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Neuromuscular and cardiovascular effects of atracurium administered to healthy horses anesthetized with halothane. Hildebrand, S.V., Arpin, D. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  23. Objective assessment of opioid action by facial muscle surface electromyography (SEMG). Edmonds, H.L., Couture, L.J., Paloheimo, M.P., Rigor, B.M. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Control of facial muscle development by MyoR and capsulin. Lu, J.R., Bassel-Duby, R., Hawkins, A., Chang, P., Valdez, R., Wu, H., Gan, L., Shelton, J.M., Richardson, J.A., Olson, E.N. Science (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Monitoring of facial muscle motor evoked potentials during microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: evidence of changes in motor neuron excitability. Wilkinson, M.F., Kaufmann, A.M. J. Neurosurg. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. Ultrastructural study of chromatolytic neurons in an adult-onset sporadic case of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Kusaka, H., Imai, T., Hashimoto, S., Yamamoto, T., Maya, K., Yamasaki, M. Acta Neuropathol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Central pontine myelinolysis. Levitt, R.O., Shenker, D.M. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. (1979) [Pubmed]
  28. EMG findings of facial muscles in ALS. Sinan Bir, L., Acar, G., Kilinçer, A. Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. (2006) [Pubmed]
  29. Comparative anatomy of the buccinator muscle in cat (Felis domestica). Tomo, S., Tomo, I., Nakajima, K., Townsend, G.C., Hirata, K. Anat. Rec. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. The face of pain--a pilot study to validate the measurement of facial pain expression with an improved electromyogram method. Wolf, K., Raedler, T., Henke, K., Kiefer, F., Mass, R., Quante, M., Wiedemann, K. Pain research & management : the journal of the Canadian Pain Society = journal de la société canadienne pour le traitement de la douleur. (2005) [Pubmed]
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