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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The influence of a transmucosal cholinergic agonist on pharyngeal muscle activity.

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of high local oral nicotine administration on the upper airway (UA) of normal males during wakefulness. DESIGN: Nonrandomized study. SETTING: Brigham & Women's Hospital General Clinical Research Center. PARTICIPANTS: Two groups of 13 and 12 normal male subjects were evaluated. INTERVENTIONS: A "Fast acting" or "Intermediate acting" 2 mg transmucosal nicotine patch was attached to an upper molar tooth of study participants during wakefulness. MEASUREMENTS: All data were collected prior to, and at several time points after, patch placement. Data measured included serum nicotine levels, genioglossal EMG, and pharyngeal resistance during basal breathing as well as the UA muscle response and UA collapsibility during negative UA pressure pulses. RESULTS: None of the variables measured showed a statistically significant change with either nicotine patch despite a significant rise (p<0.05) in nicotine serum levels post patch placement in both groups. In several subjects, muscle activity and responsiveness to negative pressure increased after application of both patches and returned to near baseline levels at the last time point measured, a response consistent with the time course of nicotine release in both patches. CONCLUSIONS: Oral nicotine administration failed to consistently increase GG muscle activation which may be a problem of local bioavailability of nicotine in the muscle.[1]


  1. The influence of a transmucosal cholinergic agonist on pharyngeal muscle activity. Slamowitz, D.I., Edwards, J.K., Chajek-Shaul, T., White, D.P. Sleep. (2000) [Pubmed]
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