The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

FOXH1  -  forkhead box H1

Homo sapiens

Synonyms: FAST-1, FAST1, FAST2, Fast-1, Fast-2, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of FOXH1

  • METHODS: In the Fast Revascularisation during InStability in Coronary disease (FRISC) II trial, 2457 patients with unstable coronary artery disease were assigned randomly to an early invasive or noninvasive strategy [1].
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fast cine MRI with three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MRA provides rapid and comprehensive anatomic definition of APVs and ASDs in patients with adult congenital heart disease in a single examination [2].
  • CONCLUSION: Fast MR blood flow measurement at baseline is highly useful for predicting significant stenosis in internal mammary arterial grafts [3].
  • CONCLUSION: Fast dynamic first-pass MR imaging, with at least one image acquired every 2 seconds, improved delineation of urinary bladder cancer, tumor staging, and detection of metastases [4].
  • Telavancin versus standard therapy for treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by gram-positive bacteria: FAST 2 study [5].

Psychiatry related information on FOXH1

  • The number and duration of contractions per minute were determined by inspection of the motor activity record; the frequency content of both the motor and myoelectrical records was determined using the Fast Fourier Transform method [6].
  • Neuropsychological tests were performed before and after training, and changes in EEG activity as determined by Fast Fourier spectral analyses were analyzed [7].
  • INTERVENTIONS: A "Fast acting" or "Intermediate acting" 2 mg transmucosal nicotine patch was attached to an upper molar tooth of study participants during wakefulness [8].
  • Four modes of data processing with different response times ("Normal," "Fast," "FastFilter," and "Urgent" modes) used by the monitoring system [9].
  • Although similar reference memory was evident, Fast rats showed working memory deficits with increasing delays between information and choice trials [10].

High impact information on FOXH1


Chemical compound and disease context of FOXH1

  • CONCLUSIONS: Fast and drastic removal of LDL cholesterol, Lp(a), and fibrinogen from plasma results in an improvement of cerebrovascular reactivity in patients with coronary heart disease and hyperlipidemia [16].
  • OBJECTIVE: To introduce the Fast Hug mnemonic (Feeding, Analgesia, Sedation, Thromboembolic prophylaxis, Head-of-bed elevation, stress Ulcer prevention, and Glucose control) as a means of identifying and checking some of the key aspects in the general care of all critically ill patients [17].
  • The tumor thrombus enhanced intensely on early post gadolinium images and was also well shown on true FISP (Fast Imaging with Steady State Precession) images [18].
  • In this study we evaluated the efficacy of a new preparation (Fast Dissolving Dosage Form--FDDF) of piroxicam (40 mg in a single sublingual dose) in the acute treatment of migraine [19].
  • A new recombinant antigen latex agglutination test (Syphilis Fast) for the rapid serological diagnosis of syphilis [20].

Biological context of FOXH1


Anatomical context of FOXH1

  • The transcription factor FAST-1 has recently been shown to play a key role in the specification of mesoderm by TGF beta superfamily signals in the early Xenopus embryo [24].
  • Expression of the FAST-1 transcription factor in coronary artery transplant vasculopathy and activated vascular smooth muscle cells [26].
  • Signal detection is not the only role of this molecular network; amplification of low-amplitude signals by hair bundles seems to be universal in hair cells. "Fast adaptation," the rapid closure of transduction channels following a mechanical stimulus, appears to be intimately involved in bundle-based amplification [27].
  • BACKGROUND: The Fragmin and Fast Revascularisation during Instability in Coronary artery disease II trial (FRISC II) compared an early invasive with an early non-invasive strategy in unstable coronary-artery disease [28].
  • METHODS: Retrogradely transported neuronal dyes, Fast Blue and Dil, were injected into the wall of the gallbladder and the sphincter of Oddi [29].

Associations of FOXH1 with chemical compounds

  • Isolation of a human myocardial cytosolic phospholipase A2 isoform. Fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopic and reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography identification of choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipid substrates [30].
  • The protein tyrosine phosphatase activity was purified using three consecutive cation-exchange columns (phosphocellulose, S Sepharose Fast Flow, Bio-Rex 70), followed by two affinity matrices (p-aminobenzylphosphonic acid-agarose and thiophosphotyrosyl nAChR-Sepharose 4B) [31].
  • Purification was performed by chromatography on DEAE anion-exchange, Q-Sepharose Fast Flow, hydroxylapatite, sphingosylphosphocholine affinity, and Superose 12 gel filtration columns [32].
  • A total of 124 contiguous T1-weighted coronal MR images (slice thickness=1.5 mm) were acquired through the whole head using a 3D Fast SPGR IR Prep sequence on a 1.5 T GE imaging system [33].
  • From Ultraslow to Fast Lithium Diffusion in the 2D Ion Conductor Li0.7TiS2 Probed Directly by Stimulated-Echo NMR and Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation [34].

Physical interactions of FOXH1

  • In contrast, transcription factors Mixer and FoxH3 (FAST1) bind to the bottom side of the Smad3 MH2 toroid; therefore, c-Ski does not affect the interaction of Smads with these transcription factors [35].

Other interactions of FOXH1

  • Smad4 is not required for nuclear translocation of Smads 1 or 2, or for association of Smad2 with a DNA binding partner, the winged helix protein FAST-1 [13].
  • Interestingly, Smad4 was also able to directly associate with the FAST-2.ARE complex through binding with FAST-2 [36].
  • Moreover, the present findings suggest that in addition to the impairment in the homo- and/or hetero-oligomerization, there may be an alternative mechanism producing disruption of TGF-beta signaling, involving hFAST-1-or possibly other transcriptional cofactor(s)-mediated transcriptional activation [37].
  • FOXH1 and FOXO1 mRNAs are expressed in human embryonic stem (ES) cells [38].
  • In an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we found that Smad3 was able to associate with the FAST-2.ARE complex and that this association was dependent on FAST-2 [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of FOXH1

  • Characterization of human FAST-1, a TGF beta and activin signal transducer [21].
  • Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry verified fork-head activin signal transducer 1 (FAST-1) expression [26].
  • Western blotting confirmed increased FAST-1 expression in arteries with CAV vs normal arteries and arteries from failing hearts and confirmed increased expression in cultured VSMCs stimulated with a variety of cytokines [26].
  • The major peak of enzyme activity (mPLC-II) was purified to homogeneity by a combination of Fast Q-Sepharose, heparin-Sepharose, Ultrogel AcA-44, Mono Q, Superose 6-12 combination column, and Superose 12 column chromatographies [39].
  • The authors show by immunoblotting techniques that the myofibrillar antigen is a 23 kd protein and by partial protein sequence data identify it as fast troponin I. Fast troponin I from various species contains the sequence EEKSGMEGRK close to the C-terminal end at positions 165 to 174 [40].


  1. Effects of an early invasive strategy on ischemia and exercise tolerance among patients with unstable coronary artery disease. Diderholm, E., Andrén, B., Frostfeldt, G., Genberg, M., Jernberg, T., Lagerqvist, B., Lindahl, B., Wallentin, L. Am. J. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  2. Ultrafast three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography and imaging in the diagnosis of partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage. Ferrari, V.A., Scott, C.H., Holland, G.A., Axel, L., Sutton, M.S. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. Mr flow measurement in the internal mammary artery-to-coronary artery bypass graft: comparison with graft stenosis at radiographic angiography. Ishida, N., Sakuma, H., Cruz, B.P., Shimono, T., Tokui, T., Yada, I., Takeda, K., Higgins, C.B. Radiology. (2001) [Pubmed]
  4. Staging urinary bladder cancer after transurethral biopsy: value of fast dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging. Barentsz, J.O., Jager, G.J., van Vierzen, P.B., Witjes, J.A., Strijk, S.P., Peters, H., Karssemeijer, N., Ruijs, S.H. Radiology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Telavancin versus standard therapy for treatment of complicated skin and skin structure infections caused by gram-positive bacteria: FAST 2 study. Stryjewski, M.E., Chu, V.H., O'Riordan, W.D., Warren, B.L., Dunbar, L.M., Young, D.M., Vallée, M., Fowler, V.G., Morganroth, J., Barriere, S.L., Kitt, M.M., Corey, G.R. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Colonic motor and myoelectrical activity: a comparative study of normal subjects, psychoneurotic patients, and patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Latimer, P., Sarna, S., Campbell, D., Latimer, M., Waterfall, W., Daniel, E.E. Gastroenterology (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. EEG operant conditioning in intractable epileptics. Lubar, J.F., Shabsin, H.S., Natelson, S.E., Holder, G.S., Whitsett, S.F., Pamplin, W.E., Krulikowski, D.I. Arch. Neurol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  8. The influence of a transmucosal cholinergic agonist on pharyngeal muscle activity. Slamowitz, D.I., Edwards, J.K., Chajek-Shaul, T., White, D.P. Sleep. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. Evaluation of a new continuous thermodilution cardiac output monitor in cardiac surgical patients: a prospective criterion standard study. Zöllner, C., Polasek, J., Kilger, E., Pichler, B., Jaenicke, U., Briegel, J., Vetter, H.O., Haller, M. Crit. Care Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Working and reference memory in seizure-prone and seizure-resistant rats: impact of amygdala kindling. McLntyre, D.C., McLeod, W.S., Anisman, H. Behav. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Smad4 and FAST-1 in the assembly of activin-responsive factor. Chen, X., Weisberg, E., Fridmacher, V., Watanabe, M., Naco, G., Whitman, M. Nature (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Cell motility. Fast axonal transport dissected. Bray, D. Nature (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Dual role of the Smad4/DPC4 tumor suppressor in TGFbeta-inducible transcriptional complexes. Liu, F., Pouponnot, C., Massagué, J. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  14. Interneuron Diversity series: Fast in, fast out--temporal and spatial signal processing in hippocampal interneurons. Jonas, P., Bischofberger, J., Fricker, D., Miles, R. Trends Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Fas-activated serine/threonine kinase (FAST) phosphorylates TIA-1 during Fas-mediated apoptosis. Tian, Q., Taupin, J., Elledge, S., Robertson, M., Anderson, P. J. Exp. Med. (1995) [Pubmed]
  16. Increased cerebral CO(2) reactivity after heparin-mediated extracorporal LDL precipitation (HELP) in patients with coronary heart disease and hyperlipidemia. Pfefferkorn, T.K., Knüppel, H.P., Jaeger, B.R., Thiery, J., Hamann, G.F. Stroke (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Give your patient a fast hug (at least) once a day. Vincent, J.L. Crit. Care Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Islet cell tumor of the pancreas associated with tumor thrombus in the portal vein. Smith, T.M., Semelka, R.C., Noone, T.C., Balci, N.C., Woosley, J.T. Magnetic resonance imaging. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Effectiveness of a piroxicam fast dissolving formulation sublingually administered in the symptomatic treatment of migraine without aura. Nappi, G., Micieli, G., Tassorelli, C., Viotti, E., Altavilla, T. Headache. (1993) [Pubmed]
  20. A new recombinant antigen latex agglutination test (Syphilis Fast) for the rapid serological diagnosis of syphilis. Young, H., Moyes, A., de Ste Croix, I., McMillan, A. International journal of STD & AIDS. (1998) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of human FAST-1, a TGF beta and activin signal transducer. Zhou, S., Zawel, L., Lengauer, C., Kinzler, K.W., Vogelstein, B. Mol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  22. FAST-2 is a mammalian winged-helix protein which mediates transforming growth factor beta signals. Liu, B., Dou, C.L., Prabhu, L., Lai, E. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  23. G protein modulation of recombinant P/Q-type calcium channels by regulators of G protein signalling proteins. Mark, M.D., Wittemann, S., Herlitze, S. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. A mouse homologue of FAST-1 transduces TGF beta superfamily signals and is expressed during early embryogenesis. Weisberg, E., Winnier, G.E., Chen, X., Farnsworth, C.L., Hogan, B.L., Whitman, M. Mech. Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  25. Molecular dissection of the myelinated axon. Waxman, S.G., Ritchie, J.M. Ann. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  26. Expression of the FAST-1 transcription factor in coronary artery transplant vasculopathy and activated vascular smooth muscle cells. Kelemen, S.F., Eisen, H.J., Autieri, M.V. J. Heart Lung Transplant. (2005) [Pubmed]
  27. Hair-cell mechanotransduction and cochlear amplification. LeMasurier, M., Gillespie, P.G. Neuron (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Outcome at 1 year after an invasive compared with a non-invasive strategy in unstable coronary-artery disease: the FRISC II invasive randomised trial. FRISC II Investigators. Fast Revascularisation during Instability in Coronary artery disease. Wallentin, L., Lagerqvist, B., Husted, S., Kontny, F., Ståhle, E., Swahn, E. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  29. Projections of nerve cells from the duodenum to the sphincter of Oddi and gallbladder of the Australian possum. Padbury, R.T., Furness, J.B., Baker, R.A., Toouli, J., Messenger, J.P. Gastroenterology (1993) [Pubmed]
  30. Isolation of a human myocardial cytosolic phospholipase A2 isoform. Fast atom bombardment mass spectroscopic and reverse-phase high pressure liquid chromatography identification of choline and ethanolamine glycerophospholipid substrates. Hazen, S.L., Hall, C.R., Ford, D.A., Gross, R.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  31. Purification and characterization of a protein tyrosine phosphatase which dephosphorylates the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Mei, L., Huganir, R.L. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  32. Characteristics and partial purification of a novel cytosolic, magnesium-independent, neutral sphingomyelinase activated in the early signal transduction of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3-induced HL-60 cell differentiation. Okazaki, T., Bielawska, A., Domae, N., Bell, R.M., Hannun, Y.A. J. Biol. Chem. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor val66met polymorphism and volume of the hippocampal formation. Szeszko, P.R., Lipsky, R., Mentschel, C., Robinson, D., Gunduz-Bruce, H., Sevy, S., Ashtari, M., Napolitano, B., Bilder, R.M., Kane, J.M., Goldman, D., Malhotra, A.K. Mol. Psychiatry (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. From Ultraslow to Fast Lithium Diffusion in the 2D Ion Conductor Li0.7TiS2 Probed Directly by Stimulated-Echo NMR and Nuclear Magnetic Relaxation. Wilkening, M., K??chler, W., Heitjans, P. Phys. Rev. Lett. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. Two short segments of Smad3 are important for specific interaction of Smad3 with c-Ski and SnoN. Mizuide, M., Hara, T., Furuya, T., Takeda, M., Kusanagi, K., Inada, Y., Mori, M., Imamura, T., Miyazawa, K., Miyazono, K. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Smad3 inhibits transforming growth factor-beta and activin signaling by competing with Smad4 for FAST-2 binding. Nagarajan, R.P., Liu, J., Chen, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Heterogeneities in the biological and biochemical functions of Smad2 and Smad4 mutants naturally occurring in human lung cancers. Yanagisawa, K., Uchida, K., Nagatake, M., Masuda, A., Sugiyama, M., Saito, T., Yamaki, K., Takahashi, T., Osada, H. Oncogene (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. Human FOX gene family (Review). Katoh, M., Katoh, M. Int. J. Oncol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  39. Purification and characterization of membrane-bound phospholipase C specific for phosphoinositides from human platelets. Banno, Y., Yada, Y., Nozawa, Y. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  40. A shared epitope in the acetylcholine receptor-alpha subunit and fast troponin I of skeletal muscle. Is it important for myasthenia gravis? Osborn, M., Marx, A., Kirchner, T., Tzartos, S.J., Plessman, U., Weber, K. Am. J. Pathol. (1992) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities