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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Pharyngeal Muscles

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Disease relevance of Pharyngeal Muscles


Psychiatry related information on Pharyngeal Muscles


High impact information on Pharyngeal Muscles


Biological context of Pharyngeal Muscles


Anatomical context of Pharyngeal Muscles

  • The unc-89 complex transcription unit contains at least three promoters: one directing UNC-89-A and -B primarily in body-wall and pharyngeal muscle, one internal promoter directing expression of UNC-89-C primarily in body-wall muscle, and one internal promoter directing expression of UNC-89-D primarily in a few muscle cells of the tail [13].
  • In eat-5 mutants the motions of the different parts of the pharynx were poorly synchronized. eat-6 and eat-12 mutants failed to relax their pharyngeal muscles properly [14].
  • C. elegans BIP was expressed in pharyngeal muscle, hypodermis and several neuronal cells, an expression pattern overlaps with those of BRA-1 and BRA-2 [15].
  • To evaluate the influence of upper airway sensory feedback on pharyngeal muscle tone and thus pharyngeal patency, we measured pharyngeal airflow resistance and breathing pattern in 15 normal, supine subjects before and after topical lidocaine anesthesia of the pharynx and glottis [16].

Associations of Pharyngeal Muscles with chemical compounds


Gene context of Pharyngeal Muscles

  • Functions of mlc-1 are redundant to those of mlc-2 in both body-wall and pharyngeal muscle. mlc-1(0) mutants are wild type, but mlc-1(0) mlc-2(0) double mutants arrest as incompletely elongated L1 larvae, having both pharyngeal and body-wall muscle defects [22].
  • The src-1 and csk-1 genes are co-expressed in some head neurons, the anchor cell and the tail region, while kin-22 and csk-1 genes are co-expressed in pharyngeal muscles and tail region [23].
  • However, ceh-22 is necessary for neither formation of the pharyngeal muscles, nor for myo-2 expression [10].
  • We have previously described CEH-22, an NK-2 class homeodomain transcription factor similar to Drosophila tinman and vertebrate Nkx2-5, which is expressed exclusively in the pharyngeal muscles [10].
  • We found that eff-1 is necessary to initiate and expand multiple microfusion events between pharyngeal muscle cells [24].


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  5. eat-5 and unc-7 represent a multigene family in Caenorhabditis elegans involved in cell-cell coupling. Starich, T.A., Lee, R.Y., Panzarella, C., Avery, L., Shaw, J.E. J. Cell Biol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  6. Rescue of Caenorhabditis elegans pharyngeal development by a vertebrate heart specification gene. Haun, C., Alexander, J., Stainier, D.Y., Okkema, P.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. A dynamin GTPase mutation causes a rapid and reversible temperature-inducible locomotion defect in C. elegans. Clark, S.G., Shurland, D.L., Meyerowitz, E.M., Bargmann, C.I., van der Bliek, A.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Intron and upstream sequences regulate expression of the Drosophila beta 3-tubulin gene in the visceral and somatic musculature, respectively. Gasch, A., Hinz, U., Renkawitz-Pohl, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  9. Immunological identification of the genes encoding the four myosin heavy chain isoforms of Caenorhabditis elegans. Miller, D.M., Stockdale, F.E., Karn, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. The Caenorhabditis elegans NK-2 homeobox gene ceh-22 activates pharyngeal muscle gene expression in combination with pha-1 and is required for normal pharyngeal development. Okkema, P.G., Ha, E., Haun, C., Chen, W., Fire, A. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  11. An early pharyngeal muscle enhancer from the Caenorhabditis elegans ceh-22 gene is targeted by the Forkhead factor PHA-4. Vilimas, T., Abraham, A., Okkema, P.G. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  12. Multiple enhancers contribute to expression of the NK-2 homeobox gene ceh-22 in C. elegans pharyngeal muscle. Kuchenthal, C.A., Chen, W., Okkema, P.G. Genesis (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. Three new isoforms of Caenorhabditis elegans UNC-89 containing MLCK-like protein kinase domains. Small, T.M., Gernert, K.M., Flaherty, D.B., Mercer, K.B., Borodovsky, M., Benian, G.M. J. Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. The genetics of feeding in Caenorhabditis elegans. Avery, L. Genetics (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. BIP, a BRAM-interacting protein involved in TGF-beta signalling, regulates body length in Caenorhabditis elegans. Sugawara, K., Morita, K., Ueno, N., Shibuya, H. Genes Cells (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Effects of upper airway anesthesia on pharyngeal patency during sleep. DeWeese, E.L., Sullivan, T.Y. J. Appl. Physiol. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. eat-2 and eat-18 are required for nicotinic neurotransmission in the Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx. McKay, J.P., Raizen, D.M., Gottschalk, A., Schafer, W.R., Avery, L. Genetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Normal glucose uptake by tongue and pharyngeal muscles in FDG-PET imaging. Segall, G.M. J. Nucl. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. The GAR-3 muscarinic receptor cooperates with calcium signals to regulate muscle contraction in the Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx. Steger, K.A., Avery, L. Genetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  20. Interacting genes required for pharyngeal excitation by motor neuron MC in Caenorhabditis elegans. Raizen, D.M., Lee, R.Y., Avery, L. Genetics (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Serotonin regulates repolarization of the C. elegans pharyngeal muscle. Niacaris, T., Avery, L. J. Exp. Biol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  22. Functions of the Caenorhabditis elegans regulatory myosin light chain genes mlc-1 and mlc-2. Rushforth, A.M., White, C.C., Anderson, P. Genetics (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Distinct roles of the Src family kinases, SRC-1 and KIN-22, that are negatively regulated by CSK-1 in C. elegans. Hirose, T., Koga, M., Ohshima, Y., Okada, M. FEBS Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. EFF-1 is sufficient to initiate and execute tissue-specific cell fusion in C. elegans. Shemer, G., Suissa, M., Kolotuev, I., Nguyen, K.C., Hall, D.H., Podbilewicz, B. Curr. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
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