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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Recirculatory pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rocuronium in patients: the influence of cardiac output.

BACKGROUND: Recirculatory models are capable of accurately describing first-pass pharmacokinetics and the influence of cardiac output (CO), which is important for drugs with a fast onset of effect. The influence of CO on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of rocuronium in patients was evaluated using a recirculatory pharmacokinetic model. METHODS: Fifteen patients were included to study rocuronium pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Bolus doses of rocuronium (0.35 mg/kg) and indocyanine green (25 mg) were injected simultaneously via a peripheral intravenous catheter. Blood samples were taken for 240 min from the radial artery. The force of contraction of the adductor pollicis after a train-of-four at 2 Hz every 12 s was measured. Arterial concentration-time curves of rocuronium and indocyanine green were analyzed using a recirculatory model. Pharmacodynamics were described using a sigmoid maximum effect (Emax) model. RESULTS: The CO of the patients varied from 2.43 to 5.59 l/min. Total distribution volume of rocuronium was 17.3 +/- 4.8 l (mean +/- SD). The CO showed a correlation with the fast tissue clearance (Cl(T_f); r2 = 0.51), with the slow tissue clearance (Cl(T_s); r2 = 0.31) and with the mean transit times of rocuronium except for the mean transit time of the slow tissue compartment. The blood-effect site equilibration constant (k(e0)) was strongly correlated with CO (r2 = 0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac output influences the pharmacokinetics, including k(e0), for rocuronium in patients. For drugs with a fast onset of effect, a recirculatory model, which includes CO, can give a good description of the relation between concentration and effect, in contrast to a conventional compartmental pharmacokinetic model.[1]


  1. Recirculatory pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rocuronium in patients: the influence of cardiac output. Kuipers, J.A., Boer, F., Olofsen, E., Bovill, J.G., Burm, A.G. Anesthesiology (2001) [Pubmed]
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