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MeSH Review

Colon, Sigmoid

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Disease relevance of Colon, Sigmoid


Psychiatry related information on Colon, Sigmoid

  • It appears that domperidone had no effect on sigmoid motor activity, although the inhibition of dopamine-induced motility confirms the presence of specific dopaminergic receptors in the colon and the antidopaminergic action of domperidone [6].
  • Individual plasma desmopressin-vWF and desmopressin-FVIII:C concentration/response-time data were fitted to a pharmacodynamic sigmoid E ( max ) model linked to a two-compartment open pharmacokinetic model (Ke0 link) [7].

High impact information on Colon, Sigmoid

  • Images in clinical medicine. Barium impaction in the sigmoid colon [8].
  • Accordingly, segregation analysis suggested an incompletely penetrant dominant inheritance in HSCR families with aganglionosis extending beyond the sigmoid colon [9].
  • However, it does differ from them in displaying a sigmoid kinetic response to glucose, requiring much higher glucose concentrations for activity, and being insensitive to physiological concentrations of glucose 6-phosphate [10].
  • The selective absence of species IV was found in preparations from both sigmoid (n = 7) and ascending (n = 4) colon and could not be accounted for by an overall decrease in total mucin content [11].
  • The accumulation of folic acid in colonic mucosa was significantly higher at pH 5.5 than at 7.5 and showed significant regional variation, with optimal uptake in the sigmoid colon [12].

Chemical compound and disease context of Colon, Sigmoid

  • PATIENT: A 32 year old man with a one year history of constipation and abdominal distention, a massively dilated ascending and transverse colon, and a normal calibre rectum and descending and sigmoid colon [13].
  • Therefore, the sigmoid colon of VDR-KO mice, fed on an appropriate lactose/calcium-enriched diet to alleviate impaired calcium homeostasis-related phenotypic changes, is an excellent model for investigating induction and prevention of pre-malignant changes in one of the hotspots for human colorectal cancer incidence [14].
  • We found that the ED50 of fluconazole given intraperitoneally was 4.56 mg/kg of body weight/day (95% confidence interval, 3.60 to 5.53 mg/kg/day), and the dose-response relationship was best described by an inhibitory sigmoid maximal effect (Emax) curve [15].
  • Barium x-ray showed loss of haustral marking, thumb printing appearance, and diffuse luminal stenosis in the transverse, descending, and sigmoid colon [16].
  • We have shown that neurokinin A-induced contraction of human sigmoid circular muscle (HSCM) is reduced in patients with ulcerative colitis and that interleukin (IL)-1beta may play a role in this change [17].

Biological context of Colon, Sigmoid

  • Vitamin C steady-state plasma concentrations as a function of dose displayed sigmoid kinetics [18].
  • Correlations between MK-383 plasma concentration (C) and inhibition of platelet aggregation were examined by fitting with a sigmoid maximum-effect model [19].
  • A site-directed mutant of clostridial glutamate dehydrogenase in which Ala163 in the glutamate binding site is replaced by glycine displays a markedly sigmoid dependence of reaction rate on glutamate concentration (S0.5 = 200 mM), with a Hill coefficient of 3.4 when assayed at pH 10.5 with 1 mM NAD+ [20].
  • 4. The variation of V and V/Km with pL is sigmoid for hydrolysis of 3,4-dinitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside by Mg2(+)-enzyme, with pK values showing small shifts, from 8.78 +/- 0.09 to 8.65 +/- 0.08 and from 8.7 +/- 0.1 to 8.9 +/- 0.1 respectively [21].
  • 3. Absence of potential difference (p.d.) measurements precludes exact description of the relation between true active transport and substrate concentration but much evidence indicates that the apparently sigmoid relation in the presence and absence of cardiac glycoside inhibition, would be retained if correction of deltaCNa values were possible [22].

Anatomical context of Colon, Sigmoid


Associations of Colon, Sigmoid with chemical compounds

  • Chloride was absorbed in transverse and sigmoid colon, however [28].
  • Animals were preconditioned to sit in restraint chairs and then had the sigmoid colon instrumented with an extraluminal strain gage force transducer, a bipolar serosal electrode and a Thomas cannula to provide access for determining luminal pressure with a perfused, open-tip catheter [29].
  • Although there was no significant difference in the basal sigmoid motility index between constipated patients and controls, response to intrarectal bisacodyl (5 mg) was impaired in the constipated group, being 479 +/- 22.1 and 735 +/- 24.7, respectively (p less than 0.01) [30].
  • Quinidine (10(-6) M to 10(-1) M) produced a prompt reduction in Na influx, maximum after 30 seconds of exposure, and dose-dependent along a sigmoid log dose-response curve [31].
  • Tetrodotoxin and hexamethonium attenuated the sigmoid shape of the pressure-diameter curve and shifted it toward the diameter axis of the curve [32].

Gene context of Colon, Sigmoid

  • Upon examining the effect of increasing concentrations of TB-1-099 on the apparent K(d) and B(max) of [(125)I]RTI-55 binding to hSERT, we found that TB-1-099 decreased the B(max) in a dose-dependent manner and affected the apparent K(d) in a manner well described by a sigmoid dose-response curve [33].
  • Accordingly, application of a sigmoid Vmax model equivalent to the Hill equation produced excellent fits to the cDNA-expressed CYP3A4 data and also to the data from HLMs pretreated with furafylline to remove CYP1A2 [34].
  • In colorectal cancer, the CCND1 copy number increase was neither associated with the tumor phenotype (stage and grade) nor with the tumor localization (colon, rectum or sigmoid colon) [35].
  • In sigmoid colon protein levels of CYP2C8 were significantly higher by ~73% than in the descending colon [36].
  • However, expression of CYP2C mRNA levels were significantly higher in the ascending colon than in the sigmoid colon [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Colon, Sigmoid


  1. Serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid are increased in the sigmoid colon in severe idiopathic constipation. Lincoln, J., Crowe, R., Kamm, M.A., Burnstock, G., Lennard-Jones, J.E. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  2. Faecal phytic acid and its relation to other putative markers of risk for colorectal cancer. Owen, R.W., Weisgerber, U.M., Spiegelhalder, B., Bartsch, H. Gut (1996) [Pubmed]
  3. Fewer intraperitoneal adhesions with use of hyaluronic acid-carboxymethylcellulose membrane: a randomized clinical trial. Vrijland, W.W., Tseng, L.N., Eijkman, H.J., Hop, W.C., Jakimowicz, J.J., Leguit, P., Stassen, L.P., Swank, D.J., Haverlag, R., Bonjer, H.J., Jeekel, H. Ann. Surg. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Downregulation of epithelial apoptosis and barrier repair in active Crohn's disease by tumour necrosis factor alpha antibody treatment. Zeissig, S., Bojarski, C., Buergel, N., Mankertz, J., Zeitz, M., Fromm, M., Schulzke, J.D. Gut (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Univariate and multivariate analyses of the relationship between adenocarcinoma and solitary and multiple adenomas in colorectal adenoma patients. Gatteschi, B., Costantini, M., Bruzzi, P., Merlo, F., Torcoli, R., Nicolo, G. Int. J. Cancer (1991) [Pubmed]
  6. Effect of domperidone and dopamine on colonic motor activity in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome. Lanfranchi, G.A., Bazzocchi, G., Fois, F., Brignola, C., Campieri, M., Menni, B. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of desmopressin: effect on plasma factor VIII:C and von Willebrand factor. Argenti, D., Jensen, B.K., Heald, D. American journal of therapeutics. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Images in clinical medicine. Barium impaction in the sigmoid colon. McDonnell, W.M., Jung, F. N. Engl. J. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Germline mutations of the RET ligand GDNF are not sufficient to cause Hirschsprung disease. Salomon, R., Attié, T., Pelet, A., Bidaud, C., Eng, C., Amiel, J., Sarnacki, S., Goulet, O., Ricour, C., Nihoul-Fékété, C., Munnich, A., Lyonnet, S. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Hexokinase and 'glucokinase' in liver metabolism. Cornish-Bowden, A., Cárdenas, M.L. Trends Biochem. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Composition of human colonic mucin. Selective alteration in inflammatory bowel disease. Podolsky, D.K., Isselbacher, K.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1983) [Pubmed]
  12. Folic acid transport in organ-cultured mucosa of human intestine. Evidence for distinct carriers. Zimmerman, J. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Loss of interstitial cells and a fibromuscular layer on the luminal side of the colonic circular muscle presenting as megacolon in an adult patient. Faussone-Pellegrini, M.S., Fociani, P., Buffa, R., Basilisco, G. Gut (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. Characterization of a vitamin D receptor knockout mouse as a model of colorectal hyperproliferation and DNA damage. Kallay, E., Pietschmann, P., Toyokuni, S., Bajna, E., Hahn, P., Mazzucco, K., Bieglmayer, C., Kato, S., Cross, H.S. Carcinogenesis (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Pharmacodynamics of fluconazole in a murine model of systemic candidiasis. Louie, A., Drusano, G.L., Banerjee, P., Liu, Q.F., Liu, W., Kaw, P., Shayegani, M., Taber, H., Miller, M.H. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. A case of ischemic colitis associated with pheochromocytoma. Sohn, C.I., Kim, J.J., Lim, Y.H., Rhee, P.L., Koh, K.C., Paik, S.W., Rhee, J.C., Chung, J.H., Lee, M.S., Yang, J.H. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Interleukin 1beta-induced production of H2O2 contributes to reduced sigmoid colonic circular smooth muscle contractility in ulcerative colitis. Cao, W., Vrees, M.D., Potenti, F.M., Harnett, K.M., Fiocchi, C., Pricolo, V.E. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
  18. Vitamin C pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers: evidence for a recommended dietary allowance. Levine, M., Conry-Cantilena, C., Wang, Y., Welch, R.W., Washko, P.W., Dhariwal, K.R., Park, J.B., Lazarev, A., Graumlich, J.F., King, J., Cantilena, L.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1996) [Pubmed]
  19. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of MK-383, a selective non-peptide platelet glycoprotein-IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist, in healthy men. Barrett, J.S., Murphy, G., Peerlinck, K., De Lepeleire, I., Gould, R.J., Panebianco, D., Hand, E., Deckmyn, H., Vermylen, J., Arnout, J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Positive cooperativity with Hill coefficients of up to 6 in the glutamate concentration dependence of steady-state reaction rates measured with clostridial glutamate dehydrogenase and the mutant A163G at high pH. Wang, X.G., Engel, P.C. Biochemistry (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. A solvent-isotope-effect study of proton transfer during catalysis by Escherichia coli (lacZ) beta-galactosidase. Selwood, T., Sinnott, M.L. Biochem. J. (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Kinetics of active sodium transport in rat proximal tubules and its variation by cardiac glycosides at zero net volume and ion fluxes. Evidence for a multisite sodium transport system. Györy, A.Z., Lingard, J.M. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1976) [Pubmed]
  23. Evidence of regio-specific glycosylation in human intestinal mucins: presence of an acidic gradient along the intestinal tract. Robbe, C., Capon, C., Maes, E., Rousset, M., Zweibaum, A., Zanetta, J.P., Michalski, J.C. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  24. NADP-binding proteins causing reduced availability and sigmoid release of NADP+ in human erythrocytes. Kirkman, H.N., Gaetani, G.F., Clemons, E.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  25. The liver glucose-6-phosphatase of intact microsomes is inhibited and displays sigmoid kinetics in the presence of alpha-ketoglutarate-magnesium and oxaloacetate-magnesium chelates. Mithieux, G., Vega, F.V., Riou, J.P. J. Biol. Chem. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Intramural distribution of regulatory peptides in the sigmoid-recto-anal region of the human gut. Ferri, G.L., Adrian, T.E., Allen, J.M., Soimero, L., Cancellieri, A., Yeats, J.C., Blank, M., Polak, J.M., Bloom, S.R. Gut (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Folate status of gastrointestinal epithelial cells is not predicted by serum and red cell folate values in replete subjects. Meenan, J., O'Hallinan, E., Lynch, S., Molloy, A., McPartlan, J., Scott, J., Weir, D.G. Gut (1996) [Pubmed]
  28. Ion transport in human cecum, transverse colon, and sigmoid colon in vitro. Baseline and response to electrical stimulation of intrinsic nerves. Hubel, K.A., Renquist, K., Shirazi, S. Gastroenterology (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Effect of dietary fiber on intraluminal pressure and myoelectrical activity of left colon in monkeys. Brodribb, A.J., Condon, R.E., Cowles, V., DeCosse, J.J. Gastroenterology (1979) [Pubmed]
  30. Changes in colorectal function in severe idiopathic chronic constipation. Shouler, P., Keighley, M.R. Gastroenterology (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. Effect of quinidine and temperature on sodium uptake and contraction frequency of cultured rat myocardial cells. McCall, D. Circ. Res. (1976) [Pubmed]
  32. Effect of sympathetic tone on pressure-diameter relation of rabbit mesenteric veins in situ. Ozono, K., Bosnjak, Z.J., Kampine, J.P. Circ. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Studies of the biogenic amine transporters. XI. Identification of a 1-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(3-phenylpropyl)piperazine (GBR12909) analog that allosterically modulates the serotonin transporter. Nightingale, B., Dersch, C.M., Boos, T.L., Greiner, E., Calhoun, W.J., Jacobson, A.E., Rice, K.C., Rothman, R.B. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2005) [Pubmed]
  34. The kinetics of aflatoxin B1 oxidation by human cDNA-expressed and human liver microsomal cytochromes P450 1A2 and 3A4. Gallagher, E.P., Kunze, K.L., Stapleton, P.L., Eaton, D.L. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Tissue microarray analysis of cyclin D1 gene amplification and gain in colorectal carcinomas. Toncheva, D., Petrova, D., Tzenova, V., Dimova, I., Yankova, R., Yordanov, V., Damjanov, D., Todorov, T., Zaharieva, B. Tumour Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Distribution of cytochrome P450 2C, 2E1, 3A4, and 3A5 in human colon mucosa. Bergheim, I., Bode, C., Parlesak, A. BMC clinical pharmacology [electronic resource]. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Evaluation of "instant" preparation of the colon with povidone-iodine. Jones, F.E., DeCosse, J.J., Condon, R.E. Ann. Surg. (1976) [Pubmed]
  38. Methacholine-induced cutaneous flare response: bivariate analysis of responsiveness and sensitivity. Buckley, C.E., Lee, K.L., Burdick, D.S. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  39. Acute shifts in baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity induced by REM sleep and grooming in rats. Nagura, S., Sakagami, T., Kakiichi, A., Yoshimoto, M., Miki, K. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2004) [Pubmed]
  40. Levels of colorectal ornithine decarboxylase activity in patients with colon cancer, a family history of nonpolyposis hereditary colorectal cancer, and adenomas. Love, R.R., Surawicz, T.S., Morrissey, J.F., Verma, A.K. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  41. Fulminant acute colitis following a self-administered hydrofluoric acid enema. Cappell, M.S., Simon, T. Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1993) [Pubmed]
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