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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Contribution of diet to the dosing time-dependent change of vitamin D3-induced hypercalcemia in rats.

We have recently reported that the degree of hypercalcemia as an adverse effect induced by a single large-dose of active vitamin D3 varied with its dosing time without alteration in therapeutic effect for secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with chronic renal failure. The present study was conducted to elucidate an effect of intestinal calcium (Ca) absorption on the chronopharmacological profiles of vitamin D3. 1, 25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol (D3, 2 microg/kg) or vehicle alone was orally administered at two different times (2 and 14 hours after lights on; HALO) to male Wistar rats (n= 10) kept in rooms with a 12 h light-dark cycle. Blood samples for serum Ca concentration were taken before and 3, 6, 9, and 12 hours after the administration. Urine was collected for 6 hours after dosing. An identical protocol was repeated using the same animals after 16 hours fasting by a cross-over fashion. Under free-fed condition, basal concentration of serum Ca was higher at a resting period (lights on) than during an active period (lights off). Serum Ca reached its peak at 6 hours after dosing in both timings, while the value was significantly higher in the 2 HALO trial than in the 14 HALO trial. Area under the serum Ca concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC0-12h) and urinary excretion of Ca for 6 hours were also significantly higher in the 2 HALO trial than in the 14 HALO trial. When fasted, basal Ca concentration was reduced compared with the free-fed condition, while the daily variation was maintained. Serum Ca concentration profiles from 3 to 12 hours after dosing were not significantly different between the 2 HALO and 14 HALO trials. The AUC0-12h of serum Ca or its urinary excretion was not different between both trials. Serum concentrations of parathyroid hormone and total protein, measured before and 6 hours after the dosing were not affected by the dosing schedule. We have concluded that intestinal Ca absorption is a major factor for the chronopharmacological phenomenon of D3-induced hypercalcemia in intact rats, while intestinal and renal involvement may be relatively small in the mechanism of the intrinsic diurnal variation of serum Ca.[1]


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