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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Acoustic nuclei in the medulla and midbrain of the vocalizing Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta).

The organization of the descending and secondary octaval nuclei in the hindbrain of the Gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta, was revealed following the injection of biotin compounds into a physiologically identified auditory region of the torus semicircularis. The results show retrogradely-filled neurons mainly in a dorsomedial division of the descending octaval nucleus, and dorsal and ventral divisions of a secondary octaval nucleus; minor labeling also appeared in dorsolateral and rostromedial intermediate divisions of the descending nucleus. The pattern identified is consistent with that reported in other teleosts, including both vocal and non-vocal species, and clarifies earlier reports of the organization of hindbrain octaval nuclei in toadfish and the closely related midshipman fish.[1]


  1. Acoustic nuclei in the medulla and midbrain of the vocalizing Gulf toadfish (Opsanus beta). Bass, A.H., Bodnar, D.A., Marchaterre, M.A. Brain Behav. Evol. (2001) [Pubmed]
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