The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Rhombencephalon

  • We compared the effects of glucose injection with those of saline or mannitol on ischemic brain damage and brain water content in a four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) rat model, which simultaneously causes severe forebrain ischemia and moderate hindbrain ischemia [1].
  • In vitro perturbation of the endogenous trans-interaction between nectin-1 and -3 caused abnormal fasciculation of the commissural axons and impairment of the contacts, and resulted in failure in longitudinal turns of the commissural axons at the contralateral sites of the rat hindbrain [2].
  • Concentrations of NT-4 were detected in regions including the hindbrain and the dorsal root ganglion [3].
  • While nearly one-fourth of hemizygous Bent tail (Bn/Y, Zic3-deficient) mice developed neural tube defects in their midbrain and hindbrain region, the other Bn/Y mice showed apparently normal behaviour in a C57BL/6 genetic background [4].
  • Regulation of NEDD9 may be an important means whereby atRA promotes cell spreading and neurite outgrowth in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, and NEDD9 represents a new downstream target of atRA and its receptors in the developing hindbrain [5].

Psychiatry related information on Rhombencephalon


High impact information on Rhombencephalon

  • Egr2(-/-) mice display disrupted hindbrain segmentation and development, and a block of Schwann-cell differentiation at an early stage [10].
  • The same intersection, when preceded by a third signal, FGF4, which is expressed in the primitive streak, defines an inductive center for hindbrain 5-HT neurons [11].
  • Cdx1 is expressed along the embryonic axis from day 7.5 postcoitum until day 12, by which time the anterior limit of expression has regressed from the hindbrain level to the forelimb bud region [12].
  • Based on an inversion discovered in the original kr allele, we selected a candidate cDNA highly expressed in the developing caudal hindbrain [13].
  • To assess HNF-3 beta function, the gene has been ectopically expressed in the midbrain/hindbrain of transgenic embryos using an En-2 promoter/enhancer [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Rhombencephalon


Biological context of Rhombencephalon

  • The identity, expression, and mutant phenotype of kr indicate an early role in axial patterning and provide insights into the molecular and embryologic mechanisms that govern hindbrain and otic development [13].
  • Failure of cranial closure between 9 and 9.5 days postcoitum coincided with increased apoptosis in the midbrain, anterior hindbrain and proximal mesenchyme of the first branchial arch, but did not involve loss of expression of twist or Pax-3, two other regulatory genes known to be required for cranial closure [20].
  • Because Eph receptors and ephrins have complementary expression in many tissues during embryogenesis, bidirectional activation of Eph receptors and ephrin-B proteins could occur at interfaces of their expression domains, for example at segment boundaries in the vertebrate hindbrain [21].
  • The Krox-20 gene encodes a zinc finger transcription factor, which has been shown previously, by targeted inactivation in the mouse, to be required for the development of rhombomeres (r) 3 and 5 in the segmented embryonic hindbrain [22].
  • Mid/hindbrain organizer gene expression, however, continues to be dependent on Gbx2 [23].

Anatomical context of Rhombencephalon


Associations of Rhombencephalon with chemical compounds

  • Retinoic acid alters hindbrain Hox code and induces transformation of rhombomeres 2/3 into a 4/5 identity [29].
  • Bidirectional signals mediated by membrane-anchored ephrins and Eph receptor tyrosine kinases have important functions in cell-cell recognition events, including those that occur during axon pathfinding and hindbrain segmentation [30].
  • Glucoreceptors controlling feeding and blood glucose: location in the hindbrain [31].
  • Hindbrain GABA receptors influence parasympathetic outflow to the stomach [32].
  • Signaling through RARs is required for patterning along the anteroposterior (A-P) axis, particularly in the hindbrain and posterior, although the absence of RA is required for correct anterior patterning [33].

Gene context of Rhombencephalon

  • In mouse embryos homozygous for a Wnt-1-null allele, the midbrain and anterior hindbrain fail to develop [34].
  • A role for Gbx2 in repression of Otx2 and positioning the mid/hindbrain organizer [35].
  • On the basis of these experiments we conclude that the r4-restricted domain of Hoxb2 in the hindbrain is the result of a direct cross-regulatory interaction by Hoxb1 involving vertebrate Pbx proteins as cofactors [36].
  • During mouse hindbrain development, Hoxb3 and Hoxb4 share an expression domain caudal to the boundary between rhombomeres 6 and 7 [37].
  • We further show that the source of Wnt impacting on dorsal otic development emanates from the dorsal hindbrain, and identify Wnt1 and Wnt3a as the specific ligands required for this function [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Rhombencephalon


  1. Moderate hyperglycemia augments ischemic brain damage: a neuropathologic study in the rat. Pulsinelli, W.A., Waldman, S., Rawlinson, D., Plum, F. Neurology (1982) [Pubmed]
  2. Contacts between the commissural axons and the floor plate cells are mediated by nectins. Okabe, N., Shimizu, K., Ozaki-Kuroda, K., Nakanishi, H., Morimoto, K., Takeuchi, M., Katsumaru, H., Murakami, F., Takai, Y. Dev. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. NT-4 protein is localized in neuronal cells in the brain stem as well as the dorsal root ganglion of embryonic and adult rats. Katoh-Semba, R., Ichisaka, S., Hata, Y., Tsumoto, T., Eguchi, K., Miyazaki, N., Matsuda, M., Takeuchi, I.K., Kato, K. J. Neurochem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Locomotor and oculomotor impairment associated with cerebellar dysgenesis in Zic3-deficient (Bent tail) mutant mice. Aruga, J., Ogura, H., Shutoh, F., Ogawa, M., Franke, B., Nagao, S., Mikoshiba, K. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Crk-associated substrate (Cas) family member, NEDD9, is regulated in human neuroblastoma cells and in the embryonic hindbrain by all-trans retinoic acid. Merrill, R.A., See, A.W., Wertheim, M.L., Clagett-Dame, M. Dev. Dyn. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. 2,5-Anhydro-D-mannitol induces Fos-like immunoreactivity in hindbrain and forebrain: relationship to eating behavior. Horn, C.C., Friedman, M.I. Brain Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  7. Dehydration anorexia is attenuated in oxytocin-deficient mice. Rinaman, L., Vollmer, R.R., Karam, J., Phillips, D., Li, X., Amico, J.A. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. Lesions of midline midbrain structures leave medial forebrain bundle self-stimulation intact. Waraczynski, M., Perkins, M., Acheson, A. Behav. Brain Res. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Similarities in genetic mental retardation and neuroteratogenic syndromes. Adams, J. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1996) [Pubmed]
  10. Mutations in the early growth response 2 (EGR2) gene are associated with hereditary myelinopathies. Warner, L.E., Mancias, P., Butler, I.J., McDonald, C.M., Keppen, L., Koob, K.G., Lupski, J.R. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  11. FGF and Shh signals control dopaminergic and serotonergic cell fate in the anterior neural plate. Ye, W., Shimamura, K., Rubenstein, J.L., Hynes, M.A., Rosenthal, A. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Disruption of the murine homeobox gene Cdx1 affects axial skeletal identities by altering the mesodermal expression domains of Hox genes. Subramanian, V., Meyer, B.I., Gruss, P. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  13. The mouse segmentation gene kr encodes a novel basic domain-leucine zipper transcription factor. Cordes, S.P., Barsh, G.S. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. HNF-3 beta as a regulator of floor plate development. Sasaki, H., Hogan, B.L. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  15. Catecholamines and vasopressin in hindbrain nuclei of hypertension prone and resistant rats. Feuerstein, G., Zerbe, R.L., Ben-Ishay, D., Kopin, I.J., Jacobowitz, D.M. Brain Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  16. The protective effects of thiopental on brain stem ischemia. Guo, J., White, J.A., Batjer, H.H. Neurosurgery (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. The effects of diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP) on the ganglioside profile in the chicken (Gallus domesticus) hindbrain. Bush, D.M., Lehning, E.J., Bursian, S.J. Neurotoxicology (1995) [Pubmed]
  18. Reactivity of rat basilar artery to serotonin after short-term ischemia of hindbrain and during chronic vertebrobasilar insufficiency. Sabadash, V.V., Fadyukova, O.E., Koshelev, V.B. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  19. Respiratory depression produced by activation of GABA receptors in hindbrain of cat. Yamada, K.A., Hamosh, P., Gillis, R.A. Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology. (1981) [Pubmed]
  20. Transcription factor AP-2 essential for cranial closure and craniofacial development. Schorle, H., Meier, P., Buchert, M., Jaenisch, R., Mitchell, P.J. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Eph receptors and ephrins restrict cell intermingling and communication. Mellitzer, G., Xu, Q., Wilkinson, D.G. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Krox-20 patterns the hindbrain through both cell-autonomous and non cell-autonomous mechanisms. Giudicelli, F., Taillebourg, E., Charnay, P., Gilardi-Hebenstreit, P. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Changing requirements for Gbx2 in development of the cerebellum and maintenance of the mid/hindbrain organizer. Li, J.Y., Lao, Z., Joyner, A.L. Neuron (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Multiple defects and perinatal death in mice deficient in follistatin. Matzuk, M.M., Lu, N., Vogel, H., Sellheyer, K., Roop, D.R., Bradley, A. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Substantia nigra: site of anticonvulsant activity mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid. Iadarola, M.J., Gale, K. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. Role of a conserved retinoic acid response element in rhombomere restriction of Hoxb-1. Studer, M., Pöpperl, H., Marshall, H., Kuroiwa, A., Krumlauf, R. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Characterization of a murine homeo box gene, Hox-2.6, related to the Drosophila Deformed gene. Graham, A., Papalopulu, N., Lorimer, J., McVey, J.H., Tuddenham, E.G., Krumlauf, R. Genes Dev. (1988) [Pubmed]
  28. Perinatal lethality and defects in hindbrain development in mice homozygous for a targeted mutation of the zinc finger gene Krox20. Swiatek, P.J., Gridley, T. Genes Dev. (1993) [Pubmed]
  29. Retinoic acid alters hindbrain Hox code and induces transformation of rhombomeres 2/3 into a 4/5 identity. Marshall, H., Nonchev, S., Sham, M.H., Muchamore, I., Lumsden, A., Krumlauf, R. Nature (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. The SH2/SH3 adaptor Grb4 transduces B-ephrin reverse signals. Cowan, C.A., Henkemeyer, M. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  31. Glucoreceptors controlling feeding and blood glucose: location in the hindbrain. Ritter, R.C., Slusser, P.G., Stone, S. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  32. Hindbrain GABA receptors influence parasympathetic outflow to the stomach. Williford, D.J., Ormsbee, H.S., Norman, W., Harmon, J.W., Garvey, T.Q., DiMicco, J.A., Gillis, R.A. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  33. Active repression of RAR signaling is required for head formation. Koide, T., Downes, M., Chandraratna, R.A., Blumberg, B., Umesono, K. Genes Dev. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Engrailed-1 as a target of the Wnt-1 signalling pathway in vertebrate midbrain development. Danielian, P.S., McMahon, A.P. Nature (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. A role for Gbx2 in repression of Otx2 and positioning the mid/hindbrain organizer. Millet, S., Campbell, K., Epstein, D.J., Losos, K., Harris, E., Joyner, A.L. Nature (1999) [Pubmed]
  36. Cross-regulation in the mouse HoxB complex: the expression of Hoxb2 in rhombomere 4 is regulated by Hoxb1. Maconochie, M.K., Nonchev, S., Studer, M., Chan, S.K., Pöpperl, H., Sham, M.H., Mann, R.S., Krumlauf, R. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  37. Positive cross-regulation and enhancer sharing: two mechanisms for specifying overlapping Hox expression patterns. Gould, A., Morrison, A., Sproat, G., White, R.A., Krumlauf, R. Genes Dev. (1997) [Pubmed]
  38. Wnt-dependent regulation of inner ear morphogenesis is balanced by the opposing and supporting roles of Shh. Riccomagno, M.M., Takada, S., Epstein, D.J. Genes Dev. (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. ELF-2, a new member of the Eph ligand family, is segmentally expressed in mouse embryos in the region of the hindbrain and newly forming somites. Bergemann, A.D., Cheng, H.J., Brambilla, R., Klein, R., Flanagan, J.G. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  40. Hindbrain patterning: Krox20 couples segmentation and specification of regional identity. Voiculescu, O., Taillebourg, E., Pujades, C., Kress, C., Buart, S., Charnay, P., Schneider-Maunoury, S. Development (2001) [Pubmed]
  41. Analysis of Xwnt-4 in embryos of Xenopus laevis: a Wnt family member expressed in the brain and floor plate. McGrew, L.L., Otte, A.P., Moon, R.T. Development (1992) [Pubmed]
  42. Positional regulation of Krox-20 and mafB/kr expression in the developing hindbrain: potentialities of prospective rhombomeres. Marín, F., Charnay, P. Dev. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities