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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The renal elimination of procainamide.

The question of pH or flow dependence for the renal elimination of procainamide (PCA) was studied under 4 conditions in each of 4 subjects. Each subject received 500 mg of PCA intravenously at weekly intervals while in a state of (1) acid load (NH4Cl) and water deprivation, (2) acid load and water excess, (3) alkali load (NaHCO3) and water deprivation, and (4) alkali load and water excess. Plasma and urine were collected at frequent intervals for PCA and N-acetyl PCA (NAPA) analysis. Urine flow rates varied markedly between the water deprivation and water excess states (approximately 1.2 vs 5 ml/min, respectively), and urine pH varied markedly between the acid and alkali load states (pH = ca 5 vs 8, respectively). Despite this marked variation, there were no significant changes in PCA renal clearance or 24-hr PCA or NAPA excretion. If passive diffusion of PCA were taking place, such flow and pH changes would have caused marked changes in PCA clearance were the pH partition hypothesis true. We therefore conclude that passive diffusion is not an important mechanism in the renal elimination of PCA in man and that there must be tubular secretion. The implication for the clinical use of the drug is that dose adjustments need not be made in response to variations in urine flow and pH.[1]


  1. The renal elimination of procainamide. Galeazzi, R.L., Sheiner, L.B., Lockwood, T., Benet, L.Z. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1976) [Pubmed]
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