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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

4-Hydroxylation of debrisoquine by human CYP1A1 and its inhibition by quinidine and quinine.

A panel of 15 recombinant cytochromes P450 expressed in human B-lymphoblastoid cells was used to study debrisoquine 4-hydroxylation. Both CYP2D6 and CYP1A1 carried out the reaction. The apparent K(m) (micromolar) and V(max) (picomoles per minute per picomole of P450) for CYP2D6 were 12.1 and 18.2 and for CYP1A1 were 23.1 and 15.2, respectively. CYP1A1 debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase was inhibited by the CYP1A1 inhibitor alpha-naphthoflavone and the CYP1A1 substrate 7-ethoxyresorufin. Additionally and surprisingly, this reaction was also inhibited by quinidine and quinine, with respective IC(50) values of 1.38 +/- 0.10 and 3.31 +/- 0.14 microM, compared with those for CYP2D6 debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase of 0.018 +/- 0.05 and 3.75 +/- 2.07 microM, respectively. Anti-CYP1A1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1-7-1 abolished CYP1A1 debrisoquine hydroxylase and anti-CYP2D6 mAb 50-1-3 eradicated CYP2D6 debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase. Three further CYP2D6-specific reactions were tested: dextromethorphan O-demethylation, bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation, and sparteine dehydrogenation. The CYP2D6 specificity, judged by the CYP2D6/CYP1A1 activity ratios was 18.5, 7.0, 6.0, and 1.6 for dextromethorphan, bufuralol, sparteine, and debrisoquine, respectively. Thus, debrisoquine is not a specific CYP2D6 substrate and quinidine is not a specific CYP2D6 inhibitor. These findings have significant implications for the conduct of in vitro drug metabolism inhibition studies and underscore the fallacy of "specific chemical inhibitors" of a supergene family of enzymes that have overlapping substrate specificities. The use of highly specific mAbs in such studies is mandated. It is unclear as yet whether these findings have implications for the relationship between CYP2D6 genotype and in vivo debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase activity.[1]


  1. 4-Hydroxylation of debrisoquine by human CYP1A1 and its inhibition by quinidine and quinine. Granvil, C.P., Krausz, K.W., Gelboin, H.V., Idle, J.R., Gonzalez, F.J. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2002) [Pubmed]
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