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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Survey of four marine antifoulant constituents (copper, zinc, diuron and Irgarol 1051) in two UK estuaries.

A field survey of antifoulant concentrations was undertaken in two UK estuaries (Hamble and Orwell) in 1998 and 1999. The two locations offered variations in physical aspects (Orwell estuary being significantly larger than the Hamble) as well as differences in boat densities (Hamble having almost twice as many vessels moored in the estuary and marinas). Samples were analysed for copper, zinc, diuron and Irgarol 1051, and were collected in summer and winter in order to identify potential seasonal variations in concentrations. The effect that different marina types (e.g. locked marina, one located in a natural inlet and pontooned ones in the open estuary) had on antifoulant concentrations were also investigated. Concentrations of the organic booster biocides, diuron and Irgarol 1051 in the marinas and estuaries were mainly influenced by leaching from antifoulant paints applied to the hulls of leisure craft, and so levels reflected the number of vessels present in the water. As a consequence significantly higher concentrations were found in marinas (up to ca. 900 ng l(-1) for diuron and 240 ng l(-1) for Irgarol 1051) compared with estuaries (up to ca. 400 ng l(-1) for diuron and 100 ng l(-1) for Irgarol 1051) and in summer compared with winter. Sediment concentrations of Irgarol 1051 and diuron were rarely detectable other than in the marinas where high concentrations were detected near slipways assumed to be derived from washed off paint chips. Dissolved concentration profiles for copper and zinc in the estuaries and marinas were different from those for the organic booster biocides partly because other sources of these metals contributed to estuarine and marina loads. In particular, riverine loads and inputs from sacrificial anodes attached to leisure craft, exhibited a major influence of estuarine levels of zinc. Consequently, only in the Hamble estuary for copper was there a clear distinction between summer (typically 3-4 microg l(-1)) and winter dissolved values (typically 1-2 microg l(-1)) that could be largely attributable to the leaching of antifoulant paints. Sediment concentrations for both metals were similar for both estuaries, with little variation between winter and summer values (Zn ranging from 28 to 614 mg kg(-1) and Cu from 6 to 1016 mg kg(-1)) as with the organic booster biocides highest levels were measured at the base of slipways in marinas.[1]


  1. Survey of four marine antifoulant constituents (copper, zinc, diuron and Irgarol 1051) in two UK estuaries. Comber, S.D., Gardner, M.J., Boxall, A.B. Journal of environmental monitoring : JEM. (2002) [Pubmed]
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