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Chemical Compound Review

diuron     3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1- dimethyl-urea

Synonyms: Cekiuron, Crisuron, Herbatox, Herburon, Vonduron, ...
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Disease relevance of diuron


Psychiatry related information on diuron

  • During the first six days, a latency period was observed both in the algal and the bacterial communities despite favorable abiotic conditions and independently of diuron exposure [6].

High impact information on diuron

  • Similarly, inhibition of photosynthesis and hence of the release of photosynthetic products as a result of prolonged darkness and 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethyl urea (DCMU) treatment also abolishes persistence [7].
  • In contrast, DCMU had no effect on either the abundance or the polyribosome profiles of endogenous histone H1 or transgenic P35S::CAT transcripts [8].
  • The Fed-1 mRNA has a half-life of approximately 2.4 hr in the light and a half-life of only 1.2 hr in the dark or in the presence of the photosynthetic electron transport inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) [9].
  • Preincubation of thylakoids with diuron leads to a conformational change in the 32,000-dalton protein, modifying its trypsin digestion and preventing expression of diuron insensitivity [10].
  • Thus, the rapidly metabolized 32,000-dalton thylakoid protein in Spirodela chloroplasts fulfills the requirements of the hypothesized "proteinaceous shield" [Renger, G. (1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 440, 287-300] regulating electron flow through photosystem II and mediating diuron sensitivity [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of diuron


Biological context of diuron


Anatomical context of diuron


Associations of diuron with other chemical compounds

  • Under these conditions, photoreduction of ferricyanide becomes insensitive to diuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea], an inhibitor of photosystem II electron transport [10].
  • In the present work the mutated amino acid residues from nine antimycin- and three diuron-resistant mutants have been identified by sequencing the relevant segments of the resistant cytochrome b gene [25].
  • In light-, but not in dark-grown spinach seedlings, the mRNAs for the nuclear-encoded photosystem I subunits D, F and L are associated with polyribosomes and this association is prevented by the application of 3-(3',4'-dichlorophenyl)-1,1'-dimethyl urea (DCMU), an inhibitor of the photosynthetic electron transport [26].
  • The activation of a fraction of PSII population (about 20%-30%) was light and temperature-dependent but did not require electron flow to plastoquinone [was not inhibited by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] [27].
  • In PS II samples at pH 6 in the presence of PMS, NH2OH, and DCMU, EPR measurements show that QA- is formed with high yield upon a 1 s illumination at 10 degrees C, while no radical from the electron donor side of PS II is detected [28].

Gene context of diuron


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of diuron

  • The simetric triazines and bromacil were analyzed by gas chromatography and diuron by HPLC [33].
  • An on-line immunoaffinity column with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (IAC-LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of diuron in water matrices was described [34].
  • The use of highly active PSII particles in combination with the flow system resulted in a reusable herbicide biosensor with good stability (50% of initial activity was still remaining after 35-h use at 25 degrees C) and high sensitivity (detection limit for diuron was 5 x 10(-10) M) [35].
  • Combined supercritical-fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry in the analysis of diuron in plasma using on-line phase-system switching [36].
  • The SPE materials were obtained by thermal immobilization of appropriate polysiloxanes onto 40 microm silica surfaces and were used in sample preparation for multiresidue analysis of the following pesticides: tebuthiuron and diuron (urea herbicides), simazine, atrazine and ametryn (triazines herbicides) and benomyl (benzimidazol fungicide) [37].


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  2. Mechanism of the down regulation of photosynthesis by blue light in the Cyanobacterium synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Scott, M., McCollum, C., Vasil'ev, S., Crozier, C., Espie, G.S., Krol, M., Huner, N.P., Bruce, D. Biochemistry (2006) [Pubmed]
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  4. Autotrophic and mixotrophic hydrogen photoproduction in sulfur-deprived chlamydomonas cells. Fouchard, S., Hemschemeier, A., Caruana, A., Pruvost, J., Legrand, J., Happe, T., Peltier, G., Cournac, L. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  5. Degradation of substituted phenylurea herbicides by Arthrobacter globiformis strain D47 and characterization of a plasmid-associated hydrolase gene, puhA. Turnbull, G.A., Ousley, M., Walker, A., Shaw, E., Morgan, J.A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Effects of the phenylurea herbicide diuron on natural riverine microbial communities in an experimental study. Pesce, S., Fajon, C., Bardot, C., Bonnemoy, F., Portelli, C., Bohatier, J. Aquat. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  7. Phagosome-lysosome fusion inhibited by algal symbionts of Hydra viridis. Hohman, T.C., McNeil, P.L., Muscatine, L. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  8. Light-regulated changes in abundance and polyribosome association of ferredoxin mRNA are dependent on photosynthesis. Petracek, M.E., Dickey, L.F., Huber, S.C., Thompson, W.F. Plant Cell (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Ferredoxin-1 mRNA is destabilized by changes in photosynthetic electron transport. Petracek, M.E., Dickey, L.F., Nguyen, T.T., Gatz, C., Sowinski, D.A., Allen, G.C., Thompson, W.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  10. The rapidly metabolized 32,000-dalton polypeptide of the chloroplast is the "proteinaceous shield" regulating photosystem II electron transport and mediating diuron herbicide sensitivity. Mattoo, A.K., Pick, U., Hoffman-Falk, H., Edelman, M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Phototaxis and Impaired Motility in Adenylyl Cyclase and Cyclase Receptor Protein Mutants of Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803. Bhaya, D., Nakasugi, K., Fazeli, F., Burriesci, M.S. J. Bacteriol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Antagonistic dark/light-induced SigB/SigD, group 2 sigma factors, expression through redox potential and their roles in cyanobacteria. Imamura, S., Asayama, M., Takahashi, H., Tanaka, K., Takahashi, H., Shirai, M. FEBS Lett. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. The dspA gene product of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803 influences sensitivity to chemically different growth inhibitors and has amino acid similarity to histidine protein kinases. Bartsevich, V.V., Shestakov, S.V. Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. The interactive effects of binary mixtures of three antifouling biocides and three heavy metals against the marine algae Chaetoceros gracilis. Koutsaftis, A., Aoyama, I. Environ. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  15. Toxicity characterisation of organic contaminants in stormwaters from an agricultural headwater stream in south east England. Thomas, K.V., Hurst, M.R., Matthiessen, P., Sheahan, D., Williams, R.J. Water Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. The PsbQ protein is required in Arabidopsis for photosystem II assembly/stability and photoautotrophy under low light conditions. Yi, X., Hargett, S.R., Frankel, L.K., Bricker, T.M. J. Biol. Chem. (2006) [Pubmed]
  17. A residue substitution in phosphoribulokinase of Synechocystis PCC 6803 renders the mutant light-sensitive. Su, X., Bogorad, L. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Glutathione redox potential modulated by reactive oxygen species regulates translation of Rubisco large subunit in the chloroplast. Irihimovitch, V., Shapira, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Evidence that the flux control coefficient of the respiratory chain is high during gluconeogenesis from lactate in hepatocytes from starved rats. Implications for the hormonal control of gluconeogenesis and action of hypoglycaemic agents. Pryor, H.J., Smyth, J.E., Quinlan, P.T., Halestrap, A.P. Biochem. J. (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. Light-dependent degradation of the D1 protein in photosystem II is accelerated after inhibition of the water splitting reaction. Jegerschöld, C., Virgin, I., Styring, S. Biochemistry (1990) [Pubmed]
  21. Impact of diuron on aneuploidy and hemocyte parameters in Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas. Bouilly, K., Bonnard, M., Gagnaire, B., Renault, T., Lap??gue, S. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  22. Herbicide impact on Hormosira banksii gametes measured by fluorescence and germination bioassays. Seery, C.R., Gunthorpe, L., Ralph, P.J. Environ. Pollut. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. Reproductive effects in male rats exposed to diuron. Fernandes, G.S., Arena, A.C., Fernandez, C.D., Mercadante, A., Barbisan, L.F., Kempinas, W.G. Reprod. Toxicol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of the herbicide diuron on the early life history stages of coral. Negri, A., Vollhardt, C., Humphrey, C., Heyward, A., Jones, R., Eaglesham, G., Fabricius, K. Mar. Pollut. Bull. (2005) [Pubmed]
  25. Molecular basis for resistance to antimycin and diuron, Q-cycle inhibitors acting at the Qi site in the mitochondrial ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. di Rago, J.P., Colson, A.M. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  26. Polyribosome loading of spinach mRNAs for photosystem I subunits is controlled by photosynthetic electron transport. Sherameti, I., Nakamura, M., Yamamoto, Y.Y., Pfannschmidt, T., Obokata, J., Oelmüller, R. Plant J. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Activation of photosynthesis and resistance to photoinhibition in cyanobacteria within biological desert crust. Harel, Y., Ohad, I., Kaplan, A. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  28. Fourier transform infrared difference study of tyrosineD oxidation and plastoquinone QA reduction in photosystem II. Hienerwadel, R., Boussac, A., Breton, J., Berthomieu, C. Biochemistry (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. The psbA gene of DCMU-resistant Euglena gracilis has an amino acid substitution at serine codon 265. Johanningmeier, U., Hallick, R.B. Curr. Genet. (1987) [Pubmed]
  30. Interaction of diuron and related substituted phenylureas with the Ah receptor pathway. Zhao, B., Baston, D.S., Hammock, B., Denison, M.S. J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Novel aspects of the regulation of a cDNA (Arf1) from Chlamydomonas with high sequence identity to animal ADP-ribosylation factor 1. Memon, A.R., Hwang, S., Deshpande, N., Thompson, G.A., Herrin, D.L. Plant Mol. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  32. Mitochondrial heredity of resistance to 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea, an inhibitor of cytochrome b oxidation, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Colson, A.M., The Van, L., Convent, B., Briquet, M., Goffeau, A. Eur. J. Biochem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  33. Dissipation of some citrus selective residual herbicides in an irrigation well. Gómez de Barreda, D., Gamón Vila, M., Lorenzo Rueda, E., Saez Olmo, A., Gómez de Barreda, D., Garcia de la Cuadra, J., Ten, A., Peris, C. Journal of chromatography. A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  34. On-line immunoaffinity column-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for trace analysis of diuron in wastewater treatment plant effluent sample. Zhang, X., Martens, D., Kr??mer, P.M., Kettrup, A.A., Liang, X. Journal of chromatography. A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  35. A sensitive photosystem II-based biosensor for detection of a class of herbicides. Koblizek, M., Masojidek, J., Komenda, J., Kucera, T., Pilloton, R., Mattoo, A.K., Giardi, M.T. Biotechnol. Bioeng. (1998) [Pubmed]
  36. Combined supercritical-fluid chromatography/mass spectrometry in the analysis of diuron in plasma using on-line phase-system switching. Niessen, W.M., de Kraa, M.A., Verheij, E.R., Bergers, P.J., La Vos, G.F., Tjaden, U.R., van der Greef, J. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. (1989) [Pubmed]
  37. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of pesticides in tomatoes using laboratory-made NH2 and C18 solid-phase extraction materials. Melo, L.F., Collins, C.H., Jardim, I.C. Journal of chromatography. A. (2005) [Pubmed]
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