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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Observation and quantification of ultraviolet-induced reactive oxygen species in ex vivo human skin.

Two-photon fluorescence imaging is used to detect UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in ex vivo human skin in this study. ROS (potentially H202, singlet oxygen or peroxynitrite [or all]) are detected after reaction with nonfluorescent dihydrorhodamine-123 (DHR) and the consequent formation of fluorescent rhodamine-123 (R123). The cellular regions at each epidermal stratum that generate ROS are identified. R-123 fluorescence is detected predominately in the lipid matrix of the stratum corneum. In contrast, the strongest R123 fluorescence signal is detected in the intracellular cytoplasm of the viable epidermal keratinocytes. A simple bimolecular one-step kinetic model is used for estimating the upper bound of the number of ROS that are generated in the skin and that react with DHR. After ultraviolet-B radiation (280-320 nm) (UVB) equivalent to 2 h of noonday summer North American solar exposure (1600 J m(-2) UVB), the model finds that 14.70 x 10(-3) mol of ROS that react with DHR are generated in the stratum corneum of an average adult-size face (258 cm(-2)). Approximately 10(-4) mol are potentially generated in the lower epidermal strata. The data show that two-photon fluorescence imaging can be used to detect ROS in UV-irradiated skin.[1]


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