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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 deficiency does not influence the outcome of murine pneumococcal pneumonia.

Urokinase-type plasminogen activator ( uPA) and its receptor uPAR are components of the fibrinolytic system and are important for an adequate immune response to respiratory tract infection, in part through their role in the migration of inflammatory cells. PA inhibitor-1 ( PAI-1) is the predominant inhibitor of soluble and receptor- bound uPA. To determine the role of PAI-1 in host defense against pneumococcal pneumonia, the following studies were performed: (1) Patients with unilateral community-acquired pneumonia demonstrated elevated PAI-1 concentrations together with decreased PA activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from the infected, but not from the contralateral, site. (2) Mice with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia displayed elevated PAI-1 protein and mRNA levels in their lungs. (3) PAI-1 gene-deficient mice, however, had an unaltered immune response to pneumococcal pneumonia, as measured by cell recruitment into lungs, bacterial outgrowth, and survival. Furthermore, plasminogen-gene-deficient mice also had an unremarkable defense against pneumococcal pneumonia. These data indicate that pneumonia is associated with inhibition of the fibrinolytic system at the site of the infection secondary to increased production of PAI-1; an intact fibrinolytic response is not required for an adequate host response to respiratory tract infection, however, suggesting that the previously described role of uPA and uPAR are restricted to their function in cell migration.[1]


  1. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 deficiency does not influence the outcome of murine pneumococcal pneumonia. Rijneveld, A.W., Florquin, S., Bresser, P., Levi, M., De Waard, V., Lijnen, R., Van Der Zee, J.S., Speelman, P., Carmeliet, P., Van Der Poll, T. Blood (2003) [Pubmed]
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