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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myogenic regulatory factor expression.

PURPOSE: This study examined 12 wk of creatine (Cr) supplementation and heavy resistance training on skeletal muscle creatine kinase (M-CK) mRNA expression and the mRNA and protein expression of the myogenic regulatory factors Myo-D, myogenin, MFR-4, and Myf5. METHODS: Twenty-two untrained males were randomly assigned to either a control (CON), placebo (PLC), or Cr ( CRT) group in a double-blind fashion. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after training. PLC and CRT trained thrice weekly using 3 sets of 6-8 repetitions at 85-90% 1-RM on the leg press, knee extension, and knee curl exercises. CRT ingested 6 g.d-1 of Cr for 12 wk while PLC consumed the equal amount of placebo. RESULTS: After training, M-CK mRNA expression, as well as myogenin and MRF-4 mRNA and protein expression, were found to be significantly greater for CRT compared with PLC and CON, whereas PLC was also significantly different from CON (P < 0.05). For Myo-D mRNA and protein, both CRT and PLC were significantly different from CON (P < 0.05), but CRT and PLC were not different from one another. No significant differences were located for Myf5 mRNA or protein (P > 0.05). M-CK mRNA was correlated with myogenin (r = 0.916) and MRF-4 (r = 0.883) protein (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: When combined with heavy resistance training, Cr supplementation increases M-CK mRNA expression, likely due to concomitant increases in the expression of myogenin and MRF-4. Therefore, increases in myogenin and MRF-4 mRNA and protein may play a role in increasing myosin heavy chain expression, already shown to occur with Cr supplementation.[1]


  1. Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myogenic regulatory factor expression. Willoughby, D.S., Rosene, J.M. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. (2003) [Pubmed]
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