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Chemical Compound Review

creatine     2-(carbamimidoyl-methyl- amino)ethanoic acid

Synonyms: Creatin, Kreatin, Krebiozon, Phosphagen, Pyrolysate, ...
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Disease relevance of creatine


Psychiatry related information on creatine


High impact information on creatine

  • Finally, mice either lacking or misexpressing different isoforms of creatine kinase have been useful for understanding the detailed role of this important enzyme in cellular energy metabolism [13].
  • Experiments using a transgenic mouse expressing creatine kinase in liver to understand ATP catabolism and regulation of oxidative phosphorylation are discussed [13].
  • PAPP-A levels correlated with levels of C-reactive protein and free IGF-I, but not with markers of myocardial injury (troponin I and the MB isoform of creatine kinase) [14].
  • METHODS: Among 1265 patients with unstable angina who were enrolled in the c7E3 Fab Antiplatelet Therapy in Unstable Refractory Angina (CAPTURE) trial, serum samples drawn at the time of randomization to abciximab or placebo were available from 890 patients; we used these samples for the determination of troponin T and creatine kinase MB levels [15].
  • Interstitial nephritis in a patient taking creatine [16].

Chemical compound and disease context of creatine


Biological context of creatine

  • In transient transfection assays Jun inhibits transactivation of the MyoD promoter, the muscle creatine kinase enhancer, and a reporter gene linked to MyoD DNA-binding sites [22].
  • Seven mothers of isolated patients who had normal levels of creatine phosphokinase and no daughters with elevated levels were identified as carriers, because their mean value of peak II phosphorylation was increased (75.9 pmoles per milligram per 15 minutes) and equivalent to the level demonstrated in the 14 acknowledged carriers [23].
  • Patients with subtotal obstruction initially had significant improvement in left ventricular function, significantly lower peak creatine kinase levels, and a trend toward lower mortality than patients with total occlusion initially [24].
  • MyoD is a sequence-specific DNA binding protein requiring a region of myc homology to bind to the muscle creatine kinase enhancer [25].
  • Transfection experiments indicate that over-expression of Id inhibits the trans-activation of the muscle creatine kinase enhancer by MyoD [26].

Anatomical context of creatine


Associations of creatine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of creatine


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of creatine


  1. Protective effects of aspirin against acute myocardial infarction and death in men with unstable angina. Results of a Veterans Administration Cooperative Study. Lewis, H.D., Davis, J.W., Archibald, D.G., Steinke, W.E., Smitherman, T.C., Doherty, J.E., Schnaper, H.W., LeWinter, M.M., Linares, E., Pouget, J.M., Sabharwal, S.C., Chesler, E., DeMots, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Mutant glycosyltransferase and altered glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan in the myodystrophy mouse. Grewal, P.K., Holzfeind, P.J., Bittner, R.E., Hewitt, J.E. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  3. The course of patients with suspected myocardial infarction. The identification of low-risk patients for early transfer from intensive care. Mulley, A.G., Thibault, G.E., Hughes, R.A., Barnett, G.O., Reder, V.A., Sherman, E.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Failure of fetal creatine phosphokinase as a diagnostic indicator of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Golbus, M.S., Stephens, J.D., Mahoney, M.J., Hobbins, J.C., Haseltine, F.P., Caskey, C.T., Banker, B.Q. N. Engl. J. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  5. Prenatal diagnosis of Duchenne's muscular dystrophy. Mahoney, M.J., Haseltine, F.P., Hobbins, J.C., Banker, B.Q., Caskey, C.T., Golbus, M.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  6. Creatine: endogenous metabolite, dietary, and therapeutic supplement. Brosnan, J.T., Brosnan, M.E. Annu. Rev. Nutr. (2007) [Pubmed]
  7. Creatine supplements in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies who are clinically weak after conventional pharmacologic treatment: Six-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Chung, Y.L., Alexanderson, H., Pipitone, N., Morrison, C., Dastmalchi, M., Ståhl-Hallengren, C., Richards, S., Thomas, E.L., Hamilton, G., Bell, J.D., Lundberg, I.E., Scott, D.L. Arthritis Rheum. (2007) [Pubmed]
  8. Catheter-induced ablation of the atrioventricular junction to control refractory supraventricular arrhythmias. Scheinman, M.M., Morady, F., Hess, D.S., Gonzalez, R. JAMA (1982) [Pubmed]
  9. X-linked mental retardation with seizures and carrier manifestations is caused by a mutation in the creatine-transporter gene (SLC6A8) located in Xq28. Hahn, K.A., Salomons, G.S., Tackels-Horne, D., Wood, T.C., Taylor, H.A., Schroer, R.J., Lubs, H.A., Jakobs, C., Olson, R.L., Holden, K.R., Stevenson, R.E., Schwartz, C.E. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Axonal injury within language network in primary progressive aphasia. Catani, M., Piccirilli, M., Cherubini, A., Tarducci, R., Sciarma, T., Gobbi, G., Pelliccioli, G., Petrillo, S.M., Senin, U., Mecocci, P. Ann. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  11. Neuroprotective effects of creatine in a transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease. Ferrante, R.J., Andreassen, O.A., Jenkins, B.G., Dedeoglu, A., Kuemmerle, S., Kubilus, J.K., Kaddurah-Daouk, R., Hersch, S.M., Beal, M.F. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. Relationships among brain metabolites, cognitive function, and viral loads in antiretroviral-naïve HIV patients. Chang, L., Ernst, T., Witt, M.D., Ames, N., Gaiefsky, M., Miller, E. Neuroimage (2002) [Pubmed]
  13. Insights into cellular energy metabolism from transgenic mice. Koretsky, A.P. Physiol. Rev. (1995) [Pubmed]
  14. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A as a marker of acute coronary syndromes. Bayes-Genis, A., Conover, C.A., Overgaard, M.T., Bailey, K.R., Christiansen, M., Holmes, D.R., Virmani, R., Oxvig, C., Schwartz, R.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  15. Benefit of abciximab in patients with refractory unstable angina in relation to serum troponin T levels. c7E3 Fab Antiplatelet Therapy in Unstable Refractory Angina (CAPTURE) Study Investigators. Hamm, C.W., Heeschen, C., Goldmann, B., Vahanian, A., Adgey, J., Miguel, C.M., Rutsch, W., Berger, J., Kootstra, J., Simoons, M.L. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  16. Interstitial nephritis in a patient taking creatine. Koshy, K.M., Griswold, E., Schneeberger, E.E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Platelet activation in unstable coronary disease. Fitzgerald, D.J., Roy, L., Catella, F., FitzGerald, G.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  18. Serum creatine kinase in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Optimal sampling frequency. Fisher, M.L., Carliner, N.H., Becker, L.C., Peters, R.W., Plotnick, G.D. JAMA (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Preservation of canine myocardial high-energy phosphates during low-flow ischemia with modification of hemoglobin-oxygen affinity. Weiss, R.G., Mejia, M.A., Kass, D.A., DiPaula, A.F., Becker, L.C., Gerstenblith, G., Chacko, V.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance studies of chronic myocardial ischemia in the Yucatan micropig. Rath, D.P., Bailey, M., Zhang, H., Jiang, Z., Abduljalil, A.M., Weisbrode, S., Hamlin, R.L., Robitaille, P.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of MB creatine kinase isoform conversion in vitro and in vivo in dogs. Billadello, J.J., Fontanet, H.L., Strauss, A.W., Abendschein, D.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Functional antagonism between c-Jun and MyoD proteins: a direct physical association. Bengal, E., Ransone, L., Scharfmann, R., Dwarki, V.J., Tapscott, S.J., Weintraub, H., Verma, I.M. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  23. Carrier detection in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Roses, A.D., Roses, M.J., Miller, S.E., Hull, K.L., Appel, S.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. Effects of intracoronary streptokinase and intracoronary nitroglycerin infusion on coronary angiographic patterns and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Rentrop, K.P., Feit, F., Blanke, H., Stecy, P., Schneider, R., Rey, M., Horowitz, S., Goldman, M., Karsch, K., Meilman, H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. MyoD is a sequence-specific DNA binding protein requiring a region of myc homology to bind to the muscle creatine kinase enhancer. Lassar, A.B., Buskin, J.N., Lockshon, D., Davis, R.L., Apone, S., Hauschka, S.D., Weintraub, H. Cell (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. The protein Id: a negative regulator of helix-loop-helix DNA binding proteins. Benezra, R., Davis, R.L., Lockshon, D., Turner, D.L., Weintraub, H. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  27. Skeletal muscles of mice deficient in muscle creatine kinase lack burst activity. van Deursen, J., Heerschap, A., Oerlemans, F., Ruitenbeek, W., Jap, P., ter Laak, H., Wieringa, B. Cell (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Left ventricular function and rapid release of creatine kinase MB in acute myocardial infarction. Evidence for spontaneous reperfusion. Ong, L., Reiser, P., Coromilas, J., Scherr, L., Morrison, J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  29. Creatine kinase, myokinase, and acetylcholinesterase activities in muscle-forming primary cultures of mouse teratocarcinoma cells. Gearhart, J.D., Mintz, B. Cell (1975) [Pubmed]
  30. The creatine kinase system in normal and diseased human myocardium. Ingwall, J.S., Kramer, M.F., Fifer, M.A., Lorell, B.H., Shemin, R., Grossman, W., Allen, P.D. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  31. Aspirin-induced depression of renal function. Kimberly, R.P., Plotz, P.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  32. Once-daily administration of 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS-related complex. Results of a Phase I trial. Cooley, T.P., Kunches, L.M., Saunders, C.A., Ritter, J.K., Perkins, C.J., McLaren, C., McCaffrey, R.P., Liebman, H.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. Creatine kinase role in anaphase chromosome movement. Cande, W.Z. Nature (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina with hyperornithinemia. Deficient formation of guanidinoacetic acid from arginine. Sipilä, I., Simell, O., Arjomaa, P. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  35. Effects of norepinephrine infusion on myocardial high-energy phosphate content and turnover in the living rat. Bittl, J.A., Balschi, J.A., Ingwall, J.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  36. Improved reperfusion and neuroprotection by creatine in a mouse model of stroke. Prass, K., Royl, G., Lindauer, U., Freyer, D., Megow, D., Dirnagl, U., Stöckler-Ipsiroglu, G., Wallimann, T., Priller, J. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (2007) [Pubmed]
  37. Enhanced expression of the alpha 7 beta 1 integrin reduces muscular dystrophy and restores viability in dystrophic mice. Burkin, D.J., Wallace, G.Q., Nicol, K.J., Kaufman, D.J., Kaufman, S.J. J. Cell Biol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. X-linked creatine-transporter gene (SLC6A8) defect: a new creatine-deficiency syndrome. Salomons, G.S., van Dooren, S.J., Verhoeven, N.M., Cecil, K.M., Ball, W.S., Degrauw, T.J., Jakobs, C. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency: the first inborn error of creatine metabolism in man. Stöckler, S., Isbrandt, D., Hanefeld, F., Schmidt, B., von Figura, K. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  40. Transforming growth factor beta represses the actions of myogenin through a mechanism independent of DNA binding. Brennan, T.J., Edmondson, D.G., Li, L., Olson, E.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  41. Physical and functional interaction between WT1 and p53 proteins. Maheswaran, S., Park, S., Bernard, A., Morris, J.F., Rauscher, F.J., Hill, D.E., Haber, D.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  42. Diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction with measurement of cardiac troponin I. Adams, J.E., Sicard, G.A., Allen, B.T., Bridwell, K.H., Lenke, L.G., Dávila-Román, V.G., Bodor, G.S., Ladenson, J.H., Jaffe, A.S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  43. Effect of propranolol on myocardial-infarct size in a randomized blinded multicenter trial. Roberts, R., Croft, C., Gold, H.K., Hartwell, T.D., Jaffe, A.S., Muller, J.E., Mullin, S.M., Parker, C., Passamani, E.R., Poole, W.K. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  44. Neuroprotective effects of creatine in a transgenic animal model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Klivenyi, P., Ferrante, R.J., Matthews, R.T., Bogdanov, M.B., Klein, A.M., Andreassen, O.A., Mueller, G., Wermer, M., Kaddurah-Daouk, R., Beal, M.F. Nat. Med. (1999) [Pubmed]
  45. Radioimmunoassay for creatine kinase isoenzymes. Roberts, R., Sobel, B.E., Parker, C.W. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
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