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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Specific valylation of turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA by wheat germ valyl-tRNA synthetase determined by three anticodon loop nucleotides.

The valylation by wheat germ valyl-tRNA synthetase of anticodon loop mutants of turnip yellow mosaic virus RNA has been studied. RNA substrates 264 nucleotides long were made by T7 RNA polymerase from cDNA encompassing the 3' tRNA-like region of genomic RNA. Substitution singly, or in combination, of three nucleotides in the anticodon loop resulted in very poor valylation (Vmax/KM less than 10(-3) relative to wild type). These nucleotides thus represent the major valine identity determinants recognized by wheat germ valyl-tRNA synthetase; their relative contribution to valine identity, in descending order, was as follows: the middle nucleotide of the anticodon (A56 in TYMV RNA), the 3' anticodon nucleotide (C55), and the 3'-most anticodon loop nucleotide ( C53). Substitutions in the wobble position (C57) had no significant effect on valylation kinetics, while substitutions of the discriminator base (A4) resulted in small decreases in Vmax/Km. Mutations in the major identity nucleotides resulted in large increases in KM, suggesting that wheat germ valyl-tRNA synthetase has a lowered affinity for variant substrates with low valine identity. Comparison with other studies using valyl-tRNA synthetases from Escherichia coli and yeast indicates that the anticodon has been phylogenetically conserved as the dominant valine identity region, while the identity contribution of the discriminator base has been less conserved. The mechanism by which anticodon mutations are discriminated also appears to vary, being affinity-based for the wheat germ enzyme, and kinetically-based for the yeast enzyme [Florentz et al. (1991) Eur. J. Biochem. 195, 229-234].[1]


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