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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Thermal expansion and microstructural analysis of experimental metal-ceramic titanium alloys.

Statement of problem Low-fusing porcelains for titanium veneering have demonstrated inferior color stability and metal-ceramic longevity compared to conventional porcelains. PURPOSE: This study evaluated the microstructure and thermal expansion coefficients of some experimental titanium alloys as alternative metallic substrates for low-fusing conventional porcelain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) and various metallic elements (Al, Co, Sn, Ga, In, Mn) were used to prepare 8 titanium alloys using a commercial 2-chamber electric-arc vacuum/inert gas dental casting machine (Cyclarc). The nominal compositions of these alloys were the following (wt%): I: 80Ti-18Sn-1.5In-0.5Mn; II: 76Ti-12Ga-7Sn-4Al-1Co; III: 87Ti-13Ga; IV: 79Ti-13Ga-7Al-1Co; V: 82Ti-18In; VI: 75.5Ti-18In-5Al-1Co-0.5Mn; VII: 85Ti-10Sn-5Al; VIII: 78Ti-12Co-7Ga-3Sn. Six rectangular wax patterns for each test material (l = 25 mm, w = 3 mm, h = 1 mm) were invested with magnesia-based material and cast with grade II CP Ti (control) and the 8 experimental alloys. The porosity of each casting was evaluated radiographically, and defective specimens were discarded. Two cast specimens from CP Ti and alloys I-VIII were embedded in epoxy resin and, after metallographic grinding and polishing, were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy and wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis. One specimen of each material was utilized for the determination of coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) with a dilatometer operating from room temperature up to 650 degrees C at a heating rate of 5 degrees C/minute. RESULTS: Secondary electron images (SEI) and compositional backscattered electron images (BEI-COMPO) revealed that all cast specimens consisted of a homogeneous matrix except Alloy VIII, which contained a second phase (possibly Ti(2)Co) along with the titanium matrix. The results showed that the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) varied from 10.1 to 13.1 x 10(-6)/ degrees C (25 degrees -500 degrees C), depending on the elemental composition. CONCLUSION: The CTE of titanium can be considerably changed by alloying. Two-phase alloys were developed when alloying elements were added in concentrations greater than the maximum solubility limit in alpha-titanium phase.[1]


  1. Thermal expansion and microstructural analysis of experimental metal-ceramic titanium alloys. Zinelis, S., Tsetsekou, A., Papadopoulos, T. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry. (2003) [Pubmed]
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