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Chemical Compound Review

Titanium-45     titanium

Synonyms: AC1L4ZAV, 45Ti, 14392-00-8, Titanium, isotope of mass 45
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Disease relevance of titanium


Psychiatry related information on titanium


High impact information on titanium


Chemical compound and disease context of titanium


Biological context of titanium

  • Expanding the scope of asymmetric electrophilic atom-transfer reactions: titanium- and ruthenium-catalyzed hydroxylation of beta-ketoesters [20].
  • The titanium complex diethoxybis-(1-phenylbutane-1,3-dionato)-tita-++ +nium(IV) showed dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation, while no significant DNA damage could be detected with the alkaline elution technique [21].
  • Low protein intake is associated with impaired titanium implant osseointegration [22].
  • Bilateral titanium bone chambers were inserted in 70 rats, and side comparisons for bone formation in the chambers were done [23].
  • In this study, 30 skeletally mature beagles (1-2 or 10-12 years old) had titanium implants placed bilaterally in the proximal humerus for a period of 4 weeks in a model of intramembranous bone regeneration [24].

Anatomical context of titanium

  • Rat bone marrow stromal cells were seeded in 3D porous titanium fiber mesh scaffolds and cultured for 16 days in a flow perfusion bioreactor with perfusing culture media of different viscosities while maintaining the fluid flow rate constant [25].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: A series of experiments were performed using 0.20-mm-diameter titanium wires that were impregnated with varying low concentrations of 32P (activity range, 0.002 to 0.06 microCi/cm wire, n = 47) or 31P (nonradioactive control, n = 28) in cultures of rat and human aortic SMCs and in cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells [26].
  • In an attempt to lower the shock strength needed for defibrillation, we designed two large titanium defibrillation patch electrodes that were contoured to fit over the right and left ventricles of the dog heart, covering areas of approximately 33 and 39 cm2, respectively [27].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Fourteen titanium-mesh stents were implanted in the iliac arteries of nine NIH miniature swine [28].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: A tubular epicardial braided carbon electrode of 7F diameter and 14-cm length applied in a U-shape to the epicardium was compared with a standard left ventricular epicardial 15-cm2 titanium mesh patch (CPI Inc) [29].

Associations of titanium with other chemical compounds

  • In an attempt to mimic crocidolite-induced cytotoxicity, P388D1 cells or primary elicited macrophages were exposed to the nontoxic mineral particle titanium dioxide in the presence and absence of ferric chloride [30].
  • SEM of the polystyrene culture displayed a porous structure consisting of fibrous and globular components, whereas the titanium tissue culture appeared to be uniformly solid [31].
  • COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production increased in the calvaria and inflammatory tissue overlying it after Ti implantation [32].
  • Structure-activity correlation in titanium single-site olefin polymerization catalysts containing mixed cyclopentadienyl/aryloxide ligation [33].
  • Heterocycle-fused titanium indenyl silylamido dimethyl complexes produce very high molecular weight polypropylene having a prevailingly syndiotactic microstructure with syndiotactic pentad contents rrrr up to 40-55% (sam-PP) [34].

Gene context of titanium


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of titanium


  1. A titanosilicate molecular sieve with adjustable pores for size-selective adsorption of molecules. Kuznicki, S.M., Bell, V.A., Nair, S., Hillhouse, H.W., Jacubinas, R.M., Braunbarth, C.M., Toby, B.H., Tsapatsis, M. Nature (2001) [Pubmed]
  2. Legionnaires' disease: concentrations of selenium and other elements. Chen, J.R., Anderson, J.M. Science (1979) [Pubmed]
  3. Phase I trial of weekly scheduling and pharmacokinetics of titanocene dichloride in patients with advanced cancer. Christodoulou, C.V., Ferry, D.R., Fyfe, D.W., Young, A., Doran, J., Sheehan, T.M., Eliopoulos, A., Hale, K., Baumgart, J., Sass, G., Kerr, D.J. J. Clin. Oncol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  4. Treatment of patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites using LeVeen shunt with titanium tip: comparison with therapeutic paracentesis. Ginès, A., Planas, R., Angeli, P., Guarner, C., Salerno, F., Ginès, P., Saló, J., Rodriguez, N., Domènech, E., Soriano, G. Hepatology (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Formation of self-assembled monolayers of alkylphosphonic acid on the native oxide surface of SS316L. Raman, A., Dubey, M., Gouzman, I., Gawalt, E.S. Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids. (2006) [Pubmed]
  6. Bone filling around titanium implants may benefit from smoking cessation: a histologic study in rats. César-Neto, J.B., Benatti, B.B., Sallum, E.A., Sallum, A.W., Nociti, F.H. J. Periodontol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Titanium anchors for the repair of rotator cuff tears: preliminary report of a surgical technique. Caniggia, M., Maniscalco, P., Pagliantini, L., Bocchi, L. Journal of orthopaedic trauma. (1995) [Pubmed]
  8. Effects of alcohol consumption on osseointegration of titanium implants in rabbits. Koo, S., König, B., Mizusaki, C.I., Allegrini, S., Yoshimoto, M., Carbonari, M.J. Implant dentistry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Frontal lobe atrophy after prolonged frontal bone defect. Marchac, D., Renier, D., Arnaud, E. The Journal of craniofacial surgery. (2006) [Pubmed]
  10. Visible-light photocatalysis in nitrogen-doped titanium oxides. Asahi, R., Morikawa, T., Ohwaki, T., Aoki, K., Taga, Y. Science (2001) [Pubmed]
  11. The role of dietary microparticles and calcium in apoptosis and interleukin-1beta release of intestinal macrophages. Evans, S.M., Ashwood, P., Warley, A., Berisha, F., Thompson, R.P., Powell, J.J. Gastroenterology (2002) [Pubmed]
  12. The role of synchrotron-based studies in the elucidation and design of active sites in titanium-silica epoxidation catalysts. Thomas, J.M., Sankar, G. Acc. Chem. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  13. In vitro generated extracellular matrix and fluid shear stress synergistically enhance 3D osteoblastic differentiation. Datta, N., Pham, Q.P., Sharma, U., Sikavitsas, V.I., Jansen, J.A., Mikos, A.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  14. Effects of titanium particle size on osteoblast functions in vitro and in vivo. Choi, M.G., Koh, H.S., Kluess, D., O'Connor, D., Mathur, A., Truskey, G.A., Rubin, J., Zhou, D.X., Sung, K.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Phase I clinical and pharmacokinetic study of titanocene dichloride in adults with advanced solid tumors. Korfel, A., Scheulen, M.E., Schmoll, H.J., Gründel, O., Harstrick, A., Knoche, M., Fels, L.M., Skorzec, M., Bach, F., Baumgart, J., Sass, G., Seeber, S., Thiel, E., Berdel, W.E. Clin. Cancer Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  16. Activity of antimicrobial agents against Staphylococcus epidermidis in established biofilms on latex catheter material and on titanium. Taylor, D., Prosser, B., Cleeland, R. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. The bisphosphonate ibandronate improves implant integration in osteopenic ovariectomized rats. Kurth, A.H., Eberhardt, C., Müller, S., Steinacker, M., Schwarz, M., Bauss, F. Bone (2005) [Pubmed]
  18. Mortality among workers employed in the titanium dioxide production industry in Europe. Boffetta, P., Soutar, A., Cherrie, J.W., Granath, F., Andersen, A., Anttila, A., Blettner, M., Gaborieau, V., Klug, S.J., Langard, S., Luce, D., Merletti, F., Miller, B., Mirabelli, D., Pukkala, E., Adami, H.O., Weiderpass, E. Cancer Causes Control (2004) [Pubmed]
  19. RF artifacts caused by metallic implants or instruments which get more prominent at 3 T: an in vitro study. Graf, H., Lauer, U.A., Berger, A., Schick, F. Magnetic resonance imaging. (2005) [Pubmed]
  20. Expanding the scope of asymmetric electrophilic atom-transfer reactions: titanium- and ruthenium-catalyzed hydroxylation of beta-ketoesters. Toullec, P.Y., Bonaccorsi, C., Mezzetti, A., Togni, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. New platinum, titanium, and ruthenium complexes with different patterns of DNA damage in rat ovarian tumor cells. Frühauf, S., Zeller, W.J. Cancer Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  22. Low protein intake is associated with impaired titanium implant osseointegration. Dayer, R., Rizzoli, R., Kaelin, A., Ammann, P. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
  23. The bone morphogenetic proteins antagonist Noggin inhibits membranous ossification. Aspenberg, P., Jeppsson, C., Economides, A.N. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Aging does not lessen the effectiveness of TGFbeta2-enhanced bone regeneration. Sumner, D.R., Turner, T.M., Cohen, M., Losavio, P., Urban, R.M., Nichols, E.H., McPherson, J.M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Mineralized matrix deposition by marrow stromal osteoblasts in 3D perfusion culture increases with increasing fluid shear forces. Sikavitsas, V.I., Bancroft, G.N., Holtorf, H.L., Jansen, J.A., Mikos, A.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2003) [Pubmed]
  26. Low-dose, beta-particle emission from 'stent' wire results in complete, localized inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation. Fischell, T.A., Kharma, B.K., Fischell, D.R., Loges, P.G., Coffey, C.W., Duggan, D.M., Naftilan, A.J. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. Improved defibrillation thresholds with large contoured epicardial electrodes and biphasic waveforms. Dixon, E.G., Tang, A.S., Wolf, P.D., Meador, J.T., Fine, M.J., Calfee, R.V., Ideker, R.E. Circulation (1987) [Pubmed]
  28. Inhibition of neointimal proliferation with low-dose irradiation from a beta-particle-emitting stent. Laird, J.R., Carter, A.J., Kufs, W.M., Hoopes, T.G., Farb, A., Nott, S.H., Fischell, R.E., Fischell, D.R., Virmani, R., Fischell, T.A. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  29. Improved defibrillation threshold with a new epicardial carbon electrode compared with a standard epicardial titanium patch. Alt, E.U., Fotuhi, P.C., Callihan, R.L., Rollins, D.L., Mestre, E., Combs, M.P., Smith, W.M., Ideker, R.E. Circulation (1995) [Pubmed]
  30. Role of reactive oxygen metabolites in crocidolite asbestos toxicity to mouse macrophages. Goodglick, L.A., Kane, A.B. Cancer Res. (1986) [Pubmed]
  31. Osteoblasts generate harder, stiffer, and more delamination-resistant mineralized tissue on titanium than on polystyrene, associated with distinct tissue micro- and ultrastructure. Saruwatari, L., Aita, H., Butz, F., Nakamura, H.K., Ouyang, J., Yang, Y., Chiou, W.A., Ogawa, T. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  32. Evidence for a direct role of cyclo-oxygenase 2 in implant wear debris-induced osteolysis. Zhang, X., Morham, S.G., Langenbach, R., Young, D.A., Xing, L., Boyce, B.F., Puzas, E.J., Rosier, R.N., O'Keefe, R.J., Schwarz, E.M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Structure-activity correlation in titanium single-site olefin polymerization catalysts containing mixed cyclopentadienyl/aryloxide ligation. Manz, T.A., Phomphrai, K., Medvedev, G., Krishnamurthy, B.B., Sharma, S., Haq, J., Novstrup, K.A., Thomson, K.T., Delgass, W.N., Caruthers, J.M., Abu-Omar, M.M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2007) [Pubmed]
  34. Synthesis and characterization of high-molecular-weight syndiotactic amorphous polypropylene. De Rosa, C., Auriemma, F., Ruiz de Ballesteros, O., Resconi, L., Fait, A., Ciaccia, E., Camurati, I. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Periprosthetic osteolysis: induction of vascular endothelial growth factor from human monocyte/macrophages by orthopaedic biomaterial particles. Miyanishi, K., Trindade, M.C., Ma, T., Goodman, S.B., Schurman, D.J., Smith, R.L. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Fibroblasts express RANKL and support osteoclastogenesis in a COX-2-dependent manner after stimulation with titanium particles. Wei, X., Zhang, X., Zuscik, M.J., Drissi, M.H., Schwarz, E.M., O'Keefe, R.J. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. Efficacy of etanercept for wear debris-induced osteolysis. Childs, L.M., Goater, J.J., O'Keefe, R.J., Schwarz, E.M. J. Bone Miner. Res. (2001) [Pubmed]
  38. Mechanism of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-1 and ERK-2 activation by vanadium pentoxide in rat pulmonary myofibroblasts. Wang, Y.Z., Bonner, J.C. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  39. Vascular stenting in normal and atherosclerotic rabbits. Studies of the intravascular endoprosthesis of titanium-nickel-alloy. Sutton, C.S., Tominaga, R., Harasaki, H., Emoto, H., Oku, T., Kambic, H.E., Skibinski, C., Beck, G., Hollman, J. Circulation (1990) [Pubmed]
  40. A chronically implanted system for automatic defibrillation in active conscious dogs. Experimental model for treatment of sudden death from ventricular fibrillation. Mirowski, M., Mower, M.M., Langer, A., Heilman, M.S., Schreibman, J. Circulation (1978) [Pubmed]
  41. Acute injury and regeneration of the mesothelium in response to asbestos fibers. Moalli, P.A., MacDonald, J.L., Goodglick, L.A., Kane, A.B. Am. J. Pathol. (1987) [Pubmed]
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