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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The role of metabotropic glutamate receptors in regulation of striatal proenkephalin expression: implications for the therapy of Parkinson's disease.

Overactivity of the striatopallidal pathway, associated with an enhancement of enkephalin expression, has been suggested to contribute to the development of parkinsonian symptoms. The aim of the present study was to examine whether the blockade of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors: subtypes 1 and 5 ( mGluR1/5), or stimulation of group II: subtypes 2 and 3 ( mGluR2/3) may normalize enkephalin expression in the striatopallidal pathway in an animal model of parkinsonism. The proenkephalin mRNA level measured by in situ hybridization in the striatum was increased by pretreatments with haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg s.c., three times, 3 h apart). Triple (3 h apart), bilateral, intrastriatal administration of selective antagonists of mGluR1: (S)-(+)-alpha-amino-4-carboxy-2-methylbenzeneacetic acid (3 x 5 microg/0.5 microl) or 7-(hydroxyimino)cyclopropa[b]chromen-1a-carboxylate (3 x 2.5 microg/0.5 microl), reversed the haloperidol-induced increases in proenkephalin mRNA levels in the rostral and central regions of the striatum. Similarly, repeated (6 times, 1.5 h apart), systemic injections of an antagonist of mGluR5, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (6 x 10 mg/kg i.p.) counteracted an increase in the striatal proenkephalin mRNA expression elicited by haloperidol. None of the abovementioned antagonists of mGluR1 and mGluR5 per se influenced the proenkephalin expression. Differential effects were induced by agonists of the group II mGluRs, viz. (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine administered intraventricularly (3 times at 0.1-0.2 microg/4 microl, 3 h apart) increased both the normal and haloperidol-increased proenkephalin mRNA level, whereas (2R,4R)-4-aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate injected intrastriatally (3 times at 15 microg/0.5 microl, 3 h apart) was ineffective. The present study indicates that the blockade of striatal glutamate receptors belonging to the group I ( mGluR1 and mGluR5) but not stimulation of the group II mGluRs may normalize the function of the striatopallidal pathway in an animal model of parkinsonism, which may be important for future antiparkinsonian therapy in humans.[1]


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