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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Models, Animal

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Disease relevance of Models, Animal


Psychiatry related information on Models, Animal


High impact information on Models, Animal


Chemical compound and disease context of Models, Animal


Biological context of Models, Animal


Anatomical context of Models, Animal


Associations of Models, Animal with chemical compounds

  • In beta-cells, Glut-2 has been proposed to be active in the control of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS; ref. 2), and its expression is strongly reduced in glucose-unresponsive islets from different animal models of diabetes [30].
  • These behavioral alterations are similar to those observed in pharmacologically induced animal models of schizophrenia and can be ameliorated by treatment with haloperidol or clozapine, antipsychotic drugs that antagonize dopaminergic and serotonergic receptors [31].
  • Beta carotene has been associated with a decreased risk of human cancer in many studies employing dietary questionnaires or blood measurements, and it has had protective effects in some animal models of carcinogenesis [32].
  • In an effort to produce selective, lateralized changes in brain dopamine metabolism associated with movement, we have now developed an animal model in which normal rats were trained to circle for a sucrose/water reward [33].
  • Muscle hyperexcitability was attributed to defects in sodium channels and/or to a decrease in chloride conductance (in Becker's myotonia and in genetic animal models) [34].

Gene context of Models, Animal

  • A naturally occurring animal model, the RPE65-/- dog, suffers from early and severe visual impairment similar to that seen in human LCA [35].
  • The expression pattern and chromosomal location of Sox9 suggest that it may be the gene defective in the mouse skeletal mutant Tail-short, a potential animal model for campomelic dysplasia [36].
  • Similar malformations are characteristic of individuals with Fraser syndrome and animal models of this human genetic disorder, such as mice carrying the blebbed mutation (bl) in the gene encoding the Fras1 ECM protein [13].
  • We found homozygous PHKG2 mutations in three human patients of consanguineous parentage and in the gsd (glycogen storage disease) rat strain, which is thus identified as an animal model for the human disorder [37].
  • We found that soluble versions of PLAD, especially those derived from P60, block the biochemical effects of TNF-alpha in vitro and potently inhibit arthritis in animal models [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Models, Animal


  1. Observations on the systemic administration of autologous lymphokine-activated killer cells and recombinant interleukin-2 to patients with metastatic cancer. Rosenberg, S.A., Lotze, M.T., Muul, L.M., Leitman, S., Chang, A.E., Ettinghausen, S.E., Matory, Y.L., Skibber, J.M., Shiloni, E., Vetto, J.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  2. Smad3 mutant mice develop metastatic colorectal cancer. Zhu, Y., Richardson, J.A., Parada, L.F., Graff, J.M. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Hepatocytes corrected by gene therapy are selected in vivo in a murine model of hereditary tyrosinaemia type I. Overturf, K., Al-Dhalimy, M., Tanguay, R., Brantly, M., Ou, C.N., Finegold, M., Grompe, M. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  4. Treatment of septic shock with the tumor necrosis factor receptor:Fc fusion protein. The Soluble TNF Receptor Sepsis Study Group. Fisher, C.J., Agosti, J.M., Opal, S.M., Lowry, S.F., Balk, R.A., Sadoff, J.C., Abraham, E., Schein, R.M., Benjamin, E. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Tuberculosis associated with infliximab, a tumor necrosis factor alpha-neutralizing agent. Keane, J., Gershon, S., Wise, R.P., Mirabile-Levens, E., Kasznica, J., Schwieterman, W.D., Siegel, J.N., Braun, M.M. N. Engl. J. Med. (2001) [Pubmed]
  6. Hypocretin (orexin) deficiency in human narcolepsy. Nishino, S., Ripley, B., Overeem, S., Lammers, G.J., Mignot, E. Lancet (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Anxiolyticlike effects of atrial natriuretic peptide on cholecystokinin tetrapeptide-induced panic attacks: preliminary findings. Wiedemann, K., Jahn, H., Yassouridis, A., Kellner, M. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Brain estrogen deficiency accelerates Abeta plaque formation in an Alzheimer's disease animal model. Yue, X., Lu, M., Lancaster, T., Cao, P., Honda, S., Staufenbiel, M., Harada, N., Zhong, Z., Shen, Y., Li, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Sleep electroencephalogram delta-frequency amplitude, night plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Darko, D.F., Miller, J.C., Gallen, C., White, J., Koziol, J., Brown, S.J., Hayduk, R., Atkinson, J.H., Assmus, J., Munnell, D.T., Naitoh, P., McCutchan, J.A., Mitler, M.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Early age-related cognitive impairment in mice lacking cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Bilkei-Gorzo, A., Racz, I., Valverde, O., Otto, M., Michel, K., Sastre, M., Sarstre, M., Zimmer, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  11. Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist: role in biology. Arend, W.P., Malyak, M., Guthridge, C.J., Gabay, C. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Immunology of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Rossini, A.A., Mordes, J.P., Like, A.A. Annu. Rev. Immunol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. A direct functional link between the multi-PDZ domain protein GRIP1 and the Fraser syndrome protein Fras1. Takamiya, K., Kostourou, V., Adams, S., Jadeja, S., Chalepakis, G., Scambler, P.J., Huganir, R.L., Adams, R.H. Nat. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  14. Cblb is a major susceptibility gene for rat type 1 diabetes mellitus. Yokoi, N., Komeda, K., Wang, H.Y., Yano, H., Kitada, K., Saitoh, Y., Seino, Y., Yasuda, K., Serikawa, T., Seino, S. Nat. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  15. Deletion of Pten in mouse brain causes seizures, ataxia and defects in soma size resembling Lhermitte-Duclos disease. Backman, S.A., Stambolic, V., Suzuki, A., Haight, J., Elia, A., Pretorius, J., Tsao, M.S., Shannon, P., Bolon, B., Ivy, G.O., Mak, T.W. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Blood-brain neutral amino acid transport activity is increased after portacaval anastomosis. James, J.H., Escourrou, J., Fischer, J.E. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  17. Kainic acid lesions of the striatum dissociate amphetamine and apomorphine stereotypy: similarities to Huntingdon's chorea. Mason, S.T., Sanberg, P.R., Fibiger, H.C. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Functional role of caspase-1 and caspase-3 in an ALS transgenic mouse model. Li, M., Ona, V.O., Guégan, C., Chen, M., Jackson-Lewis, V., Andrews, L.J., Olszewski, A.J., Stieg, P.E., Lee, J.P., Przedborski, S., Friedlander, R.M. Science (2000) [Pubmed]
  19. Severely impaired adipsin expression in genetic and acquired obesity. Flier, J.S., Cook, K.S., Usher, P., Spiegelman, B.M. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  20. The clinical pharmacology of L-arginine. Böger, R.H., Bode-Böger, S.M. Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. A genome scan localizes five non-MHC loci controlling collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Remmers, E.F., Longman, R.E., Du, Y., O'Hare, A., Cannon, G.W., Griffiths, M.M., Wilder, R.L. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. The absence of c-fos prevents light-induced apoptotic cell death of photoreceptors in retinal degeneration in vivo. Hafezi, F., Steinbach, J.P., Marti, A., Munz, K., Wang, Z.Q., Wagner, E.F., Aguzzi, A., Remé, C.E. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Effective treatment of an orthologous model of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Torres, V.E., Wang, X., Qian, Q., Somlo, S., Harris, P.C., Gattone, V.H. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  24. Aggressive behavior and altered amounts of brain serotonin and norepinephrine in mice lacking MAOA. Cases, O., Seif, I., Grimsby, J., Gaspar, P., Chen, K., Pournin, S., Müller, U., Aguet, M., Babinet, C., Shih, J.C. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Key roles for E2F1 in signaling p53-dependent apoptosis and in cell division within developing tumors. Pan, H., Yin, C., Dyson, N.J., Harlow, E., Yamasaki, L., Van Dyke, T. Mol. Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  26. A rationally designed CD4 analogue inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Jameson, B.A., McDonnell, J.M., Marini, J.C., Korngold, R. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  27. LIF receptor signaling limits immune-mediated demyelination by enhancing oligodendrocyte survival. Butzkueven, H., Zhang, J.G., Soilu-Hanninen, M., Hochrein, H., Chionh, F., Shipham, K.A., Emery, B., Turnley, A.M., Petratos, S., Ernst, M., Bartlett, P.F., Kilpatrick, T.J. Nat. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. An animal model for cystic fibrosis made by gene targeting. Snouwaert, J.N., Brigman, K.K., Latour, A.M., Malouf, N.N., Boucher, R.C., Smithies, O., Koller, B.H. Science (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. A requirement for NF-kappaB activation in Bcr-Abl-mediated transformation. Reuther, J.Y., Reuther, G.W., Cortez, D., Pendergast, A.M., Baldwin, A.S. Genes Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  30. Early diabetes and abnormal postnatal pancreatic islet development in mice lacking Glut-2. Guillam, M.T., Hümmler, E., Schaerer, E., Yeh, J.I., Birnbaum, M.J., Beermann, F., Schmidt, A., Dériaz, N., Thorens, B., Wu, J.Y. Nat. Genet. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. Mice with reduced NMDA receptor expression display behaviors related to schizophrenia. Mohn, A.R., Gainetdinov, R.R., Caron, M.G., Koller, B.H. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. A clinical trial of beta carotene to prevent basal-cell and squamous-cell cancers of the skin. The Skin Cancer Prevention Study Group. Greenberg, E.R., Baron, J.A., Stukel, T.A., Stevens, M.M., Mandel, J.S., Spencer, S.K., Elias, P.M., Lowe, N., Nierenberg, D.W., Bayrd, G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  33. The trained circling rat: a model for inducing unilateral caudate dopamine metabolism. Yamamoto, B.K., Freed, C.R. Nature (1982) [Pubmed]
  34. Inactivation of muscle chloride channel by transposon insertion in myotonic mice. Steinmeyer, K., Klocke, R., Ortland, C., Gronemeier, M., Jockusch, H., Gründer, S., Jentsch, T.J. Nature (1991) [Pubmed]
  35. Gene therapy restores vision in a canine model of childhood blindness. Acland, G.M., Aguirre, G.D., Ray, J., Zhang, Q., Aleman, T.S., Cideciyan, A.V., Pearce-Kelling, S.E., Anand, V., Zeng, Y., Maguire, A.M., Jacobson, S.G., Hauswirth, W.W., Bennett, J. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  36. The Sry-related gene Sox9 is expressed during chondrogenesis in mouse embryos. Wright, E., Hargrave, M.R., Christiansen, J., Cooper, L., Kun, J., Evans, T., Gangadharan, U., Greenfield, A., Koopman, P. Nat. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Mutations in the testis/liver isoform of the phosphorylase kinase gamma subunit (PHKG2) cause autosomal liver glycogenosis in the gsd rat and in humans. Maichele, A.J., Burwinkel, B., Maire, I., Søvik, O., Kilimann, M.W. Nat. Genet. (1996) [Pubmed]
  38. Amelioration of inflammatory arthritis by targeting the pre-ligand assembly domain of tumor necrosis factor receptors. Deng, G.M., Zheng, L., Chan, F.K., Lenardo, M. Nat. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  39. Renal abnormalities and an altered inflammatory response in mice lacking cyclooxygenase II. Dinchuk, J.E., Car, B.D., Focht, R.J., Johnston, J.J., Jaffee, B.D., Covington, M.B., Contel, N.R., Eng, V.M., Collins, R.J., Czerniak, P.M. Nature (1995) [Pubmed]
  40. Transplantation of a multipotent cell population from human adipose tissue induces dystrophin expression in the immunocompetent mdx mouse. Rodriguez, A.M., Pisani, D., Dechesne, C.A., Turc-Carel, C., Kurzenne, J.Y., Wdziekonski, B., Villageois, A., Bagnis, C., Breittmayer, J.P., Groux, H., Ailhaud, G., Dani, C. J. Exp. Med. (2005) [Pubmed]
  41. Interleukin 4 (B cell stimulatory factor 1) can mediate the induction of lymphokine-activated killer cell activity directed against fresh tumor cells. Mulé, J.J., Smith, C.A., Rosenberg, S.A. J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  42. Apolipoprotein E deficiency in mice: gene replacement and prevention of atherosclerosis using adenovirus vectors. Kashyap, V.S., Santamarina-Fojo, S., Brown, D.R., Parrott, C.L., Applebaum-Bowden, D., Meyn, S., Talley, G., Paigen, B., Maeda, N., Brewer, H.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  43. Carcinogenic agents in snuff. Hoffmann, D., Harley, N.H., Fisenne, I., Adams, J.D., Brunnemann, K.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
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