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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Inheritance of resistance to flumethrin in the Mexican Aldama strain of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

The objective of this study was to evaluate the inheritance mode of resistance to flumethrin in the Mexican Aldama Boophilus microplus strain. Two Mexican strains were used, the Chiapas susceptible (SS), and the Aldama flumethrin-resistant from Tamaulipas. Six steers weighing ca. 250 kg were randomly assigned for each of six crosses: the susceptible (SS), resistant (RR), and the F1 (RS, SR) reciprocal crosses and F2 (RS x RS and SR x SR). The reciprocal crosses were made to evaluate maternal and sex linkage effects. Bioassays tested resistant and susceptible larvae along with their hybrid F1 and F2 progeny against a series of concentrations of flumethrin (0, 0.0075, 0.00150, 0.00300, 0.00600 and 0.01200 microg/g). To test the single-gene hypothesis of resistance, a nonparametric line-cross test proposed by Collins was used. The bioassay data were subjected to probit analysis and the resistance factor and effective dominance obtained. Results of this study indicated that inheritance for flumethrin resistance in the Aldama strain was autosomal and controlled for more than one gene. The F1 and F2 larvae had similar lower resistant factor (RF 2.8-4.5) while the resistant Aldama strain was 21-fold higher (RF 81.8) than the mean of the F1 and F2. The extent of flumethrin resistance in the Aldama B. microplus strain depended upon the concentration of the pesticide used. Resistance was almost dominant at the lowest dose while almost completely recessive at the highest dose. Maternal effects were shown for egg-mass. These results shown here indicate more than one gene basis of flumethrin resistance in B. microplus ticks are present. Therefore it is necessary to locate and understand the major loci for elucidate the mechanism of resistance and improve the ability to track and delay the evolution of resistance.[1]


  1. Inheritance of resistance to flumethrin in the Mexican Aldama strain of the cattle tick Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae). Tapia-Perez, G., García-Vazquez, Z., Montaldo, H., George, J. Exp. Appl. Acarol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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