The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Biological Assay

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of Biological Assay

  • In 25 of the patients with trauma or sepsis the rate of amino acid release from one leg was measured by subtracting the concentration of tyrosine plus phenylalanine in the femoral artery plasma from that in the femoral vein; this rate correlated well with the bioactivity of the plasma in the bioassay system (r = 0.67, P less than 0.001) [1].
  • Three systems were used for bioassay; induction of bladder carcinoma by implantation of cholesterol pellets containing bracken fern fractions into the bladder lumens of mice; acute toxicity by ip injection of brachen fern fraction into mice; and growth inhibition of Escherichia coli [2].
  • Various sulfonic acid derivatives of 1-naphthylamine and 2-naphthylamine were tested in inbred A/St (male and female) mice by the pulmonary adenoma bioassay to determine if this class of compounds, used as intermediates in the dye-stuff industry, possesses tumorigenic activity [3].
  • The effects of dietary linoleic acid and marine fatty acids seen in animal bioassays might not apply to human prostate cancer [4].
  • BACKGROUND: Although a recent bioassay showed increased frequency of bone cancer in rats with high oral intake of fluoride, the data are reported as equivocal evidence of carcinogenicity [5].

Psychiatry related information on Biological Assay

  • Metallothionein (MT)-III: generation of polyclonal antibodies, comparison with MT-I+II in the freeze lesioned rat brain and in a bioassay with astrocytes, and analysis of Alzheimer's disease brains [6].
  • The urinary excretion of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was measured by bioassay in normal subjects at rest, on reduced physical activity and on routine everyday activity [7].
  • Cataplexy in dogs can easily be quantified using a simple behavioural bioassay, the Food Elicited Cataplexy Test. In contrast, daytime sleepiness and fragmented sleep are more difficult to measure, as long-term, labour-intensive polygraphic recordings in surgically-implanted animals are needed [8].

High impact information on Biological Assay

  • To address the possible tumor suppressor role of wildtype Kras2 in lung tumorigenesis, we have carried out a lung tumor bioassay in heterozygous Kras2-deficient mice [9].
  • Purified Nod factors (sulfated or not) from nodH+ or nodH- strains exhibited the same plant specificity in a variety of bioassays (root hair deformations, nodulation, changes in root morphology) as the bacterial cells from which they were purified [10].
  • Bioassays of Tg brain extracts showed that the prion inoculum dictates which prions are synthesized de novo [11].
  • Northern gel analysis of mRNA, bioassay of culture supernatants, and the density-independent growth of the FI cells indicated that the transformation had not induced the synthesis of the hemopoietic growth factors normally required to support the FD cells, that is, granulocyte-macrophage CSF or Multi-CSF [12].
  • Radioimmunoassay and bioassays showed that tumor extracts and further purified fractions were active in corticotropin-releasing factor, and the tumor material coeluted with corticotropin-releasing factor on high-pressure liquid chromatography [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of Biological Assay


Biological context of Biological Assay


Anatomical context of Biological Assay


Associations of Biological Assay with chemical compounds

  • This substance has the same characteristics as thromboxane A2, and can be distinguished from other products of arachidonic acid metabolism by differential bioassay [29].
  • Co-infusion of cysteine revealed major differences between the remaining candidates because it reduced the effect of authentic nitric oxide and EDRF on the bioassay tissues but enhanced the survival of S-nitrosocysteine and S-nitrosocysteamine [30].
  • Several pieces of evidence, including the selectivity of the bioassay tissues, chemical instability, inactivation by superoxide anion and haemoglobin, inhibition by NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and potentiation by L-arginine all indicated that NO accounted for the biological activity of this transferable NANC factor [31].
  • The melatonin in urine samples from six healthy adult volunteers was concentrated on Amberlite XAD-2 resin, eluted with organic solvents, and quantitated by use of a bioassay technique (the dermal melanaphore response of larval anurans to melatonin in their bathing medium) [32].
  • In laboratory and field bioassays, Gnathotrichus sulcatus responded to sulcatol (6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol) only when both enantiomers were present [33].

Gene context of Biological Assay

  • Rescue of tracheal migration in btl mutant embryos by the chimeric construct provides a sensitive biological assay for the activity of other Drosophila receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) [34].
  • While neither IL-1ra nor 35F5 had intrinsic activity in bioassays using T helper D10.G4.1 cells and mouse thymocytes, both agents blocked the ability of IL-1 to stimulate proliferation of these cells [35].
  • Quantitation by bioassay revealed baseline TGF beta secretion of approximately 1 ng/10(6) cells over 48 h [36].
  • Biological assays and immunoassays demonstrate that PMN translate these mRNAs, except TNF-alpha, into secretory proteins [37].
  • These primary leukemic T cells also released biologically active IL-1 protein as evaluated in the murine thymocyte comitogenesis bioassay [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Biological Assay


  1. Muscle proteolysis induced by a circulating peptide in patients with sepsis or trauma. Clowes, G.H., George, B.C., Villee, C.A., Saravis, C.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. Identification of carcinogenic tannin isolated from Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum). Wang, C.Y., Chiu, C.W., Pamukcu, A.M., Bryan, G.T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  3. Pulmonary adenoma response of strain A mice to sulfonic acid derivatives of 1- and 2-naphthylamines. Theiss, J.C., Shimkin, M.B., Weisburger, E.K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1981) [Pubmed]
  4. Prospective study of plasma fatty acids and risk of prostate cancer. Gann, P.H., Hennekens, C.H., Sacks, F.M., Grodstein, F., Giovannucci, E.L., Stampfer, M.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Cancer incidence and mortality in workers exposed to fluoride. Grandjean, P., Olsen, J.H., Jensen, O.M., Juel, K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  6. Metallothionein (MT)-III: generation of polyclonal antibodies, comparison with MT-I+II in the freeze lesioned rat brain and in a bioassay with astrocytes, and analysis of Alzheimer's disease brains. Carrasco, J., Giralt, M., Molinero, A., Penkowa, M., Moos, T., Hidalgo, J. J. Neurotrauma (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Normal excretion of vasopressin and the effect of everyday activity. Waters, A.K., Penn, W.P. Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf) (1977) [Pubmed]
  8. Circadian distribution of rest/activity in narcoleptic and control dogs: assessment with ambulatory activity monitoring. Nishino, S., Tafti, M., Sampathkumaran, R., Dement, W.C., Mignot, E. Journal of sleep research. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Wildtype Kras2 can inhibit lung carcinogenesis in mice. Zhang, Z., Wang, Y., Vikis, H.G., Johnson, L., Liu, G., Li, J., Anderson, M.W., Sills, R.C., Hong, H.L., Devereux, T.R., Jacks, T., Guan, K.L., You, M. Nat. Genet. (2001) [Pubmed]
  10. Molecular basis of symbiotic host specificity in Rhizobium meliloti: nodH and nodPQ genes encode the sulfation of lipo-oligosaccharide signals. Roche, P., Debellé, F., Maillet, F., Lerouge, P., Faucher, C., Truchet, G., Dénarié, J., Promé, J.C. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Transgenetic studies implicate interactions between homologous PrP isoforms in scrapie prion replication. Prusiner, S.B., Scott, M., Foster, D., Pan, K.M., Groth, D., Mirenda, C., Torchia, M., Yang, S.L., Serban, D., Carlson, G.A. Cell (1990) [Pubmed]
  12. Malignant transformation of a growth factor-dependent myeloid cell line by Abelson virus without evidence of an autocrine mechanism. Cook, W.D., Metcalf, D., Nicola, N.A., Burgess, A.W., Walker, F. Cell (1985) [Pubmed]
  13. Ectopic secretion of corticotropin-releasing factor as a cause of Cushing's syndrome. A clinical, morphologic, and biochemical study. Carey, R.M., Varma, S.K., Drake, C.R., Thorner, M.O., Kovacs, K., Rivier, J., Vale, W. N. Engl. J. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  14. Uroguanylin: structure and activity of a second endogenous peptide that stimulates intestinal guanylate cyclase. Hamra, F.K., Forte, L.R., Eber, S.L., Pidhorodeckyj, N.V., Krause, W.J., Freeman, R.H., Chin, D.T., Tompkins, J.A., Fok, K.F., Smith, C.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  15. A major inducer of anticarcinogenic protective enzymes from broccoli: isolation and elucidation of structure. Zhang, Y., Talalay, P., Cho, C.G., Posner, G.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1992) [Pubmed]
  16. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of diphtheria toxin by cells in culture. Keen, J.H., Maxfield, F.R., Hardegree, M.C., Habig, W.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1982) [Pubmed]
  17. Venous prostaglandin-like activity in diarrhoeal states. Harris, D.W., Swan, C.H., Smith, P.R. Gut (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Tumor necrosis factor in familial Mediterranean fever. Schattner, A., Lachmi, M., Livneh, A., Pras, M., Hahn, T. Am. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Genetic variation in susceptibility to endocrine disruption by estrogen in mice. Spearow, J.L., Doemeny, P., Sera, R., Leffler, R., Barkley, M. Science (1999) [Pubmed]
  20. A potent nonpeptide antagonist of the substance P (NK1) receptor. Snider, R.M., Constantine, J.W., Lowe, J.A., Longo, K.P., Lebel, W.S., Woody, H.A., Drozda, S.E., Desai, M.C., Vinick, F.J., Spencer, R.W. Science (1991) [Pubmed]
  21. Decreased TRH receptor mRNA activity precedes homologous downregulation: assay in oocytes. Oron, Y., Straub, R.E., Traktman, P., Gershengorn, M.C. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  22. A 275 basepair fragment at the 5' end of the interleukin 2 gene enhances expression from a heterologous promoter in response to signals from the T cell antigen receptor. Durand, D.B., Bush, M.R., Morgan, J.G., Weiss, A., Crabtree, G.R. J. Exp. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Estrogenic properties of 3,9-dihydroxybenz[a]anthracene, a potential metabolite of benz[a]anthracene. Schneider, S.L., Alks, V., Morreal, C.E., Sinha, D.K., Dao, T.L. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1976) [Pubmed]
  24. Met-enkephalin circulates in human plasma. Clement-Jones, V., Lowry, P.J., Rees, L.H., Besser, G.M. Nature (1980) [Pubmed]
  25. FGF-2: apical ectodermal ridge growth signal for chick limb development. Fallon, J.F., López, A., Ros, M.A., Savage, M.P., Olwin, B.B., Simandl, B.K. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. Inflammatory mast cells up-regulate angiogenesis during squamous epithelial carcinogenesis. Coussens, L.M., Raymond, W.W., Bergers, G., Laig-Webster, M., Behrendtsen, O., Werb, Z., Caughey, G.H., Hanahan, D. Genes Dev. (1999) [Pubmed]
  27. Activin A/erythroid differentiation factor is induced during human monocyte activation. Erämaa, M., Hurme, M., Stenman, U.H., Ritvos, O. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  28. Lymphokine production by murine T cells in the mixed leukocyte reaction. Puré, E., Inaba, K., Metlay, J. J. Exp. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  29. Identification of an enzyme in platelet microsomes which generates thromboxane A2 from prostaglandin endoperoxides. Needleman, P., Moncada, S., Bunting, S., Vane, J.R., Hamberg, M., Samuelsson, B. Nature (1976) [Pubmed]
  30. Understanding the controversy over the identity of EDRF. Feelisch, M., te Poel, M., Zamora, R., Deussen, A., Moncada, S. Nature (1994) [Pubmed]
  31. Nitric oxide as an inhibitory non-adrenergic non-cholinergic neurotransmitter. Bult, H., Boeckxstaens, G.E., Pelckmans, P.A., Jordaens, F.H., Van Maercke, Y.M., Herman, A.G. Nature (1990) [Pubmed]
  32. Daily rhythm in human urinary melatonin. Lynch, H.J., Wurtman, R.J., Moskowitz, M.A., Archer, M.C., Ho, M.H. Science (1975) [Pubmed]
  33. Gnathotrichus sulcatus: synergistic response to enantiomers of the aggregation pheromone sulcatol. Borden, J.H., Chong, L., McLean, J.A., Slessor, K.N., Mori, K. Science (1976) [Pubmed]
  34. Elucidation of the role of breathless, a Drosophila FGF receptor homolog, in tracheal cell migration. Reichman-Fried, M., Dickson, B., Hafen, E., Shilo, B.Z. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Inhibition of interleukin 1 (IL-1) binding and bioactivity in vitro and modulation of acute inflammation in vivo by IL-1 receptor antagonist and anti-IL-1 receptor monoclonal antibody. McIntyre, K.W., Stepan, G.J., Kolinsky, K.D., Benjamin, W.R., Plocinski, J.M., Kaffka, K.L., Campen, C.A., Chizzonite, R.A., Kilian, P.L. J. Exp. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. Dog mastocytoma cells produce transforming growth factor beta 1. Pennington, D.W., Lopez, A.R., Thomas, P.S., Peck, C., Gold, W.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  37. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor induces cytokine secretion by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Lindemann, A., Riedel, D., Oster, W., Ziegler-Heitbrock, H.W., Mertelsmann, R., Herrmann, F. J. Clin. Invest. (1989) [Pubmed]
  38. Interleukin 1 gene expression in adult T cell leukemia. Wano, Y., Hattori, T., Matsuoka, M., Takatsuki, K., Chua, A.O., Gubler, U., Greene, W.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  39. Angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of cultured murine proximal tubular cells is mediated by endogenous transforming growth factor-beta. Wolf, G., Mueller, E., Stahl, R.A., Ziyadeh, F.N. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  40. Transforming growth factor-beta activity in sheep lung lymph during the development of pulmonary hypertension. Perkett, E.A., Lyons, R.M., Moses, H.L., Brigham, K.L., Meyrick, B. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  41. An inhibitor of sodium transport in the urine of dogs with normal renal function. Favre, H., Hwang, K.H., Schmidt, R.W., Bricker, N.S., Bourgoignie, J.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  42. Measurement of cremophor EL following taxol: plasma levels sufficient to reverse drug exclusion mediated by the multidrug-resistant phenotype. Webster, L., Linsenmeyer, M., Millward, M., Morton, C., Bishop, J., Woodcock, D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1993) [Pubmed]
  43. Regulation of transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene expression by glucocorticoids in normal human T lymphocytes. AyanlarBatuman, O., Ferrero, A.P., Diaz, A., Jimenez, S.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1991) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities