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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The immunosensors for measurement of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was evaluated for the direct determination of herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Specific antibody against 2,4-D was immobilised onto different gold electrodes. Several methods of antibody immobilisation by covalent linkage to modified surface were studied. Self-assembled monolayers formed using thiocompounds as cystamine, 4-aminothiophenol (ATPh), 3,3'-dithiopropionic acid di-(N-succinimidyl ester) ( DTSP) and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) were chosen for the sensing surface activation. Three different sensor types were tested: screen-printed disc and finger-like structures and interdigitated array (IDA) electrodes produced by lithography. The measurements were carried out in a stationary arrangement, and the reaction between hapten and the immobilised antibody was observed online. Changes of impedance parameters were evaluated, and the best immobilisation technique (using 4-aminothiophenol) was chosen for further measurements. Impedance changes due to immunocomplex formation were evaluated, and the possibility of direct monitoring of 2,4-D binding to the antibody was demonstrated at a fixed frequency. For the strip sensor, the calibration curves were constructed in concentration range from 45 nmol l(-1) to 0.45 mmol l(-1) of 2,4-D.[1]


  1. The immunosensors for measurement of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Navrátilová, I., Skládal, P. Bioelectrochemistry (Amsterdam, Netherlands) (2004) [Pubmed]
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