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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Contrasting mammalian parathyroid hormone ( PTH) promoters: nuclear factor-Y binds to a deoxyribonucleic acid element unique to the human PTH promoter and acts as a transcriptional enhancer.

The identification of a highly conserved specificity protein 1 ( Sp1) DNA element in mammalian PTH promoters was recently reported. However, the presence of a novel DNA-binding complex was subsequently observed exclusively with the human PTH ( hPTH) Sp1 element in mobility shift studies. Point mutations in the hPTH Sp1 element revealed the factor recognized a CAAT-like sequence resulting from a single nucleotide difference unique to the human sequence relative to other mammalian promoters. A consensus nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) element was able to specifically compete for formation of the novel complex, whereas antiserum directed against the B-subunit of NF-Y supershifted the complex without disturbing binding by the Sp3/ Sp1 proteins. Moreover, immunocytochemistry confirmed the nuclear localization of NF-Y in parathyroid gland cells. Transient expression of a dominant negative form of NF-Y impaired basal hPTH promoter activity in opossum kidney cells. Studies in Drosophila SL2 cells revealed that an intact NF-Y complex was required to strongly activate transcription from the hPTH promoter, and mutational analysis confirmed the identity of the NF-Y and Sp1 DNA elements. Finally, coexpression studies in SL2 cells indicated that NF-Y and Sp1 competed for binding to their adjoining sites in the hPTH promoter. In summary, an NF-Y enhancer DNA element has been identified that is uniquely positioned in the hPTH promoter and partially overlaps with the species-conserved Sp1 element. Binding appears to be mutually exclusive by the two transcription factors to this site and suggests that separate signaling pathways may be using this DNA locus to enhance transcription of the hPTH gene.[1]


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