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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Elements of the major myofibrillar binding peptide motif are present in the earliest of true muscle type creatine kinases.

Most vertebrates possess two genes for cytoplasmic creatine kinase (CK) coding for muscle (M-CK) and brain (B-CK) isoforms which assemble into homo-dimeric (MM, BB) and hetero-dimeric (MB) active enzymes. In mammals and birds, a significant fraction of MM-CK is bound to the myofibrillar M-line where it is thought to facilitate energy buffering and transport. Myofibrillar binding is mediated by major and minor lysine charge clamp motifs (K104/K115 [major] and K8/K24 [minor] in chicken M-CK) located in the N-terminal region [J. Cell Biol. 149 (2000) 1225]. We have obtained the cDNA and deduced amino acid sequences for cytoplasmic CKs from two hagfish, Myxine glutinosa and Eptatretus stoutii, non-vertebrate craniates, and the sequences for two cytoplasmic CKs from the lamprey Lampetra japonica, a jawless true vertebrate. All four cDNAs code for CKs consisting of approximately 380 residues. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the hagfish and lamprey CKs are coded for by genes which are clearly muscle type (M) creatine kinases. Two of these four M-CKs have the K104/K115-equivalent residues of the major myofibrillar binding region while the other two have the K115 equivalent but lack the corresponding K104 residue. All four M-CKs lack the K8/K24 equivalent elements of the minor myofibrillar binding region. Comparison of these sequences to corresponding sequences of cytoplasmic CKs from two protochordates (tunicate, amphioxus) and M- and B-CKs from true fish and above reveal a pattern of acquisition (and loss) of key lysine residues consistent with the physiological context in which these enzymes operate.[1]


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