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Disease relevance of Hagfishes


High impact information on Hagfishes

  • Mucus is obtained in nonhydrated form by electrically stimulating the anesthetized hagfish and the secretions are stirred into ammonium sulfate [2].
  • Lactate dehydrogenases of Atlantic hagfish: physiological and evolutionary implications of a primitive heart isozyme [3].
  • Isozymes of lactate dehydrogenase from heart and muscle of Atlantic hagfish show less functional divergence than those from other fishes and higher vertebrates [3].
  • The enzyme from hagfish heart (B4) displays a higher Michaelis constant for pyruvate and lower substrate inhibition at moderate pyruvate concentrations than heart isozymes from other species [3].
  • We discuss the relationships of the isolated gene for hagfish complement with the mammalian genes for complements C3, C4 and C5 [4].

Biological context of Hagfishes

  • Sequencing of genomes from a cephalochordate, such as amphioxus, and from hagfish and lamprey will establish early events in the evolution of steroid hormone signaling, and also allow genetic studies to elucidate how vertebrate complexity depends on steroid hormones [5].
  • Messenger RNA sequence and primary structure of preproinsulin in a primitive vertebrate, the Atlantic hagfish [6].
  • Amino acid sequence alignments of human, bovine, rat, mouse, chicken, and hagfish prothrombin suggest that the thrombin B-chain and the propeptide-Gla domain are the regions most constrained for the common function(s) of vertebrate prothrombins [7].
  • Natriuretic peptide binding sites in the brain of the Atlantic hagfish, Myxine glutinosa [8].
  • The immunoreactive band intensity for the Atlantic hagfish was similar to that of the little skate, but less than half that of the full-strength seawater mummichog [9].

Anatomical context of Hagfishes


Associations of Hagfishes with chemical compounds

  • These properties support the hypothesis that the ancestral vertebrate lactate dehydrogenase was a muscle (A4)-type enzyme and also suggest a role for the B4 enzyme in the unusual physiology of hagfish cardiac tissue which functions under sustained hypoxic conditions [3].
  • This discrepancy was not due to the methionine residue (B31) at the COOH-terminal end of the B chain of hagfish insulin, since removal of this residue caused no marked change in the binding affinity or the potency [10].
  • Both have homologs in other mammalian species and belong to a gene family (CNT) that also includes hfCNT, a newly identified broad specificity pyrimidine and purine Na(+)-nucleoside symporter (system cib) from the ancient marine vertebrate, the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti) [15].
  • Protein tyrosine phosphatases from amphioxus, hagfish, and ray: divergence of tissue-specific isoform genes in the early evolution of vertebrates [16].
  • Estrone, 17 beta-estradiol, or 17 alpha-estradiol was formed by central neural tissues of all species, with the exception of the opossum, hagfish, and lobster [17].

Gene context of Hagfishes

  • Uniquely, the loop 1 (L1) regions between hydrophobic domain 1 and hydrophobic domain 2 of the hagfish putative GRIA2 and all the teleost GRIA1 subunits were much longer than those of the remaining known ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits [18].
  • TH-like immunoreactivity was observed within cells in hagfish hearts [19].
  • Assay of hagfish liver demonstrated vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity in this hemichordate [20].
  • The PGI of hagfish encodes 554 amino acids, in contrast to the PGIs of bonyfishes, toad, and snake which encode 553 amino acids and the PGIs of mammals which encode 558 amino acids [21].
  • This Na+-nucleoside symporter, designated hfCNT, is the first transport protein to be characterized in detail in hagfish and is a 683-amino acid residue protein with 13 predicted transmembrane helical segments (TMs). hfCNT was 52, 50, and 57% identical in sequence to hCNT1, hCNT2, and hCNT3, respectively [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Hagfishes


  1. Hepatomas and other neoplasms in the atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa): a histopathologic and chemical study. Falkmer, S., Marklund, S., Mattsson, P.E., Rappe, C. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. The hagfish slime gland: a model system for studying the biology of mucus. Downing, S.W., Salo, W.L., Spitzer, R.H., Koch, E.A. Science (1981) [Pubmed]
  3. Lactate dehydrogenases of Atlantic hagfish: physiological and evolutionary implications of a primitive heart isozyme. Sidell, B.D., Beland, K.F. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  4. Isolation of a hagfish gene that encodes a complement component. Ishiguro, H., Kobayashi, K., Suzuki, M., Titani, K., Tomonaga, S., Kurosawa, Y. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  5. Evolution of adrenal and sex steroid action in vertebrates: a ligand-based mechanism for complexity. Baker, M.E. Bioessays (2003) [Pubmed]
  6. Messenger RNA sequence and primary structure of preproinsulin in a primitive vertebrate, the Atlantic hagfish. Chan, S.J., Emdin, S.O., Kwok, S.C., Kramer, J.M., Falkmer, S., Steiner, D.F. J. Biol. Chem. (1981) [Pubmed]
  7. Evolution of prothrombin: isolation and characterization of the cDNAs encoding chicken and hagfish prothrombin. Banfield, D.K., Irwin, D.M., Walz, D.A., MacGillivray, R.T. J. Mol. Evol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Natriuretic peptide binding sites in the brain of the Atlantic hagfish, Myxine glutinosa. Donald, J.A., Toop, T., Evans, D.H. J. Exp. Zool. (1999) [Pubmed]
  9. Immunolocalization of Na+/K(+)-ATPase in mitochondrion-rich cells of the atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) gill. Choe, K.P., Edwards, S., Morrison-Shetlar, A.I., Toop, T., Claiborne, J.B. Comp. Biochem. Physiol., Part A Mol. Integr. Physiol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Degradation, receptor binding affinity, and potency of insulin from the Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) determined in isolated rat fat cells. Gammeltoft, S., Gliemann, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1977) [Pubmed]
  11. Phylogeny of enteric serotonergic neurons. Goodrich, J.T., Bernd, P., Sherman, D., Gershon, M.D. J. Comp. Neurol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  12. Plasma cells in adult Atlantic hagfish, Myxine glutinosa. Zapata, A., Fänge, R., Mattisson, A., Villena, A. Cell Tissue Res. (1984) [Pubmed]
  13. Intercellular junctions in the gill epithelium of the Atlantic hagfish, Myxine glutinosa. Bartels, H. Cell Tissue Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Isolation and characterization of hagfish thyroid iodoprotein by its non-thyroglobulin nature, very high iodine and carbohydrate contents and low hormone/iodine ratio. Ohmiya, Y., Suzuki, S., Kondo, Y. Eur. J. Biochem. (1989) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular identification and characterization of novel human and mouse concentrative Na+-nucleoside cotransporter proteins (hCNT3 and mCNT3) broadly selective for purine and pyrimidine nucleosides (system cib). Ritzel, M.W., Ng, A.M., Yao, S.Y., Graham, K., Loewen, S.K., Smith, K.M., Ritzel, R.G., Mowles, D.A., Carpenter, P., Chen, X.Z., Karpinski, E., Hyde, R.J., Baldwin, S.A., Cass, C.E., Young, J.D. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Protein tyrosine phosphatases from amphioxus, hagfish, and ray: divergence of tissue-specific isoform genes in the early evolution of vertebrates. Ono-Koyanagi, K., Suga, H., Katoh, K., Miyata, T. J. Mol. Evol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Phylogenetic distribution of aromatase and other androgen-converting enzymes in the central nervous system. Callard, G.V., Petro, Z., Ryan, K.J. Endocrinology (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Identifications, classification, and evolution of the vertebrate alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit genes. Chen, Y.C., Kung, S.S., Chen, B.Y., Hung, C.C., Chen, C.C., Wang, T.Y., Wu, Y.M., Lin, W.H., Tzeng, C.S., Chow, W.Y. J. Mol. Evol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Immunohistochemical localization of bioactive peptides and amines associated with the chromaffin tissue of five species of fish. Reid, S.G., Fritsche, R., Jönsson, A.C. Cell Tissue Res. (1995) [Pubmed]
  20. A conserved motif within the vitamin K-dependent carboxylase gene is widely distributed across animal phyla. Begley, G.S., Furie, B.C., Czerwiec, E., Taylor, K.L., Furie, G.L., Bronstein, L., Stenflo, J., Furie, B. J. Biol. Chem. (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Phosphoglucose isomerases of hagfish, zebrafish, gray mullet, toad, and snake, with reference to the evolution of the genes in vertebrates. Kao, H.W., Lee, S.C. Mol. Biol. Evol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. An ancient prevertebrate Na+-nucleoside cotransporter (hfCNT) from the Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stouti). Yao, S.Y., Ng, A.M., Loewen, S.K., Cass, C.E., Baldwin, S.A., Young, J.D. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. X-ray scattering study of hagfish protease inhibitor, a protein structurally related to complement and alpha 2-macroglobulin. Osterberg, R., Malmensten, B., Ikai, A. Biochemistry (1991) [Pubmed]
  24. Distribution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactivity in the brain of the Pacific hagfish, Eptatretus stouti (Craniata: Myxinoidea). Braun, C.B., Wicht, H., Northcutt, R.G. J. Comp. Neurol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Cell types in the adenohypophysis of the hagfish, Myxine glutinosa (Cyclostomata). Patzner, R.A., Erhart, G., Adam, H. Cell Tissue Res. (1982) [Pubmed]
  26. Plasma thyroid hormones in cyclostomes: do they have a role in regulation of glycemic levels? Plisetskaya, E., Dickhoff, W.W., Gorbman, A. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. (1983) [Pubmed]
  27. Molecular cloning and structural characterization of the hagfish proteinase inhibitor of the alpha-2-macroglobulin family. Idiris, A., Ohtsubo, K., Yoza, K., Osada, T., Nakamichi, N., Matsumura, T., Ikai, A. J. Protein Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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