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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Ellipsometric approach for the real-time detection of label-free protein adsorption by second harmonic generation.

Second harmonic generation (SHG) was performed using a novel ellipsometric detection approach to selectively probe the real-time surface binding kinetics of an unlabeled protein. The coherence of nonlinear optical processes introduces new possibilities for exploiting polarization that are unavailable with incoherent methods, such as absorbance and fluorescence. Adsorption of bovine serum albumin ( BSA) at silica/aqueous solution interfaces resulted in changes in the polarization state of the frequency-doubled light through weak, dynamic interactions with a coadsorbed nonlinear optical probe molecule (rhodamine 6G). Using a remarkably simple instrumental approach, signals arising exclusively from surface interactions with BSA were spatially isolated and selectively detected with high signal-to-noise. The relative intensities acquired during the kinetics experiments using both circularly and linearly polarized incident beams were in excellent agreement with the responses predicted from SHG ellipsometry polarization measurements. Analysis of the polarization-dependent SHG generated during BSA adsorption at glass/aqueous solution interfaces provided direct evidence for slow conformational changes within the protein layer after adsorption, consistent with protein denaturation. This polarization selection approach is sufficiently general to be easily extended to virtually all coherent nonlinear optical processes and a variety of different surface interactions and architectures.[1]


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