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MAX meets ADAM: a dosimetric comparison between a voxel-based and a mathematical model for external exposure to photons.

The International Commission on Radiological Protection intends to revise the organ and tissue equivalent dose conversion coefficients published in various reports. For this purpose the mathematical human medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) phantoms, actually in use, have to be replaced by recently developed voxel-based phantoms. This study investigates the dosimetric consequences, especially with respect to the effective male dose, if not only a MIRD phantom is replaced by a voxel phantom, but also if the tissue compositions and the radiation transport codes are changed. This task will be resolved by systematically replacing in the mathematical ADAM/ GSF exposure model, first the radiation transport code, then the tissue composition and finally the phantom anatomy, in order to arrive at the voxel-based MAX/EGS4 exposure model. The results show that the combined effect of these replacements can decrease the effective male dose by up to 25% for external exposures to photons for incident energies above 30 keV for different field geometries, mainly because of increased shielding by a heterogeneous skeleton and by the overlying adipose and muscle tissue, and also because of the positions internal organs have in a realistically designed human body compared to their positions in the mathematically constructed phantom.[1]


  1. MAX meets ADAM: a dosimetric comparison between a voxel-based and a mathematical model for external exposure to photons. Kramer, R., Vieira, J.W., Khoury, H.J., de Andrade Lima, F. Physics in medicine and biology. (2004) [Pubmed]
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