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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The intracellular domain of X-Serrate-1 is cleaved and suppresses primary neurogenesis in Xenopus laevis.

The Notch ligands, Delta/Serrate/Lag-2 (DSL) proteins, mediate the Notch signaling pathway in a numerous developmental processes in multicellular organisms. Although the ligands induce the activation of the Notch receptor, the intracellular domain-deleted forms of the ligands cause dominant-negative phenotypes, implying that the intracellular domain is necessary for the Notch signal transduction. Here we examined the role of the intracellular domain of Xenopus Serrate (XSICD) in Xenopus embryos. X-Serrate-1 has the putative nuclear localization sequence (NLS) in downstream of the transmembrane domain. Biochemical analysis revealed that XSICD fragments are cleaved from the C-terminus side of X-Serrate-1. Fluorescence microscopic analysis showed that the nuclear localization of XSICD occurs in the neuroectoderm of the embryo injected with the full-length X-Serrate-1/GFP. Overexpression of XSICD showed the inhibitory effect on primary neurogenesis. However, a point mutation in the NLSs of XSICD inhibited the nuclear localization of XSICD, which caused the induction of a neurogenic phenotype. The animal cap assay revealed that X-Serrate-1 suppresses primary neurogenesis in neuralized animal cap, but X-Delta-1 does not. Moreover, XSICD could not activate the expression of the canonical Notch target gene, XESR-1 in contrast to the case of full-length X-Serrate-1. These results suggest that the combination of XSICD-mediated intracellular signaling and the extracellular domain of Notch ligands-mediated activation of Notch receptor is involved in the primary neurogenesis. Moreover, we propose a bi-directional signaling pathway mediated by X-Serrate-1 in Notch signaling.[1]


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