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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Respiratory response to positive and negative inspiratory pressure in humans.

To investigate the effect of positive or negative inspiratory pressure on respiration, eight subjects breathed, either without or with added external dead space (VD, 600 ml), through either added inspiratory laminar flow resistances (RES; peak inspiratory airway pressure, Pinsp, down to -9 cmH2O) or with inspiratory pressure support ( IPS; Pinsp up to +10 cmH2O). IPS, triggered by the subject's inspiratory effort, provided positive airway pressure throughout inspiration, but allowed for attainment of the subject's own respiratory pattern. The following main results were obtained with IPS or RES relative to the control (no IPS, no RES): (1) with VD, IPS led to small, but significant, increases in tidal volume (VT), respiratory frequency (fR) and ventilation (VE), with no changes in inspiratory time (TI) or duty cycle (TI/TT). Mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI) increased, and mouth occlusion pressure 0.1 sec after onset of inspiration (P0.1) decreased significantly with IPS. The changes during RES were essentially in the opposite direction; (2) without VD, similar, but smaller effects were observed, and only the changes in VT/TI and P0.1 during IPS were significant; (3) highly significant decreases were observed during IPS in end-tidal PCO2 (PETCO2); on the average from 39.6 to 29.2 Torr without VD, and from 45.7 to 39.3 Torr with VD breathing. A small, but significant decrease in PETCO2 occurred also during RES with VD. We conclude that while resistive loading is nearly completely compensated with but small changes in PETCO2, inspiratory pressure support leads to marked hyperventilation, which is not effectively counteracted by central timing commands.[1]


  1. Respiratory response to positive and negative inspiratory pressure in humans. Lofaso, F., Isabey, D., Lorino, H., Harf, A., Scheid, P. Respiration physiology. (1992) [Pubmed]
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