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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Preliminary kinetics and metabolism of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and its reduced metabolites in an aquatic oligochaete.

We examined the toxicokinetics and metabolism of 2,4,6-trinitirotoluene (TNT) and four of its major reduced metabolites (2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2ADNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4ADNT), and 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4DANT)) in the freshwater, aquatic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex exposed to spiked, reconstituted water. In uptake experiments with each compound, steady state concentrations were reached within 1h, and all absorbed compounds were completely eliminated in 0-3 h. The appearance of 2ADNT and 4ADNT (from metabolism of absorbed TNT) was five times slower, reaching 95% of steady state in 14.2-16.1h. Approximately, 82% of absorbed TNT was metabolized to ADNTs; metabolism to 4ADNT was favored over 2ADNT by a factor of 3. No further metabolism of ADNTs to DANTs was detected. After a loss of 29-50% of metabolically-generated ADNTs during the first hour of the TNT depuration experiment, Tubifex ADNT concentrations remained constant throughout the 53h depuration period. This suggests differences between the toxicokinetics of absorbed ADNTs and the toxicokinetics of metabolically-generated ADNTs. Experiments using radiolabeled (14C) TNT revealed that only 15-47% of 14C-TNT equivalents were identified as TNT, 2ADNT, or 4ADNT, indicating significant metabolism and/or binding to biomolecules. Of unidentified 14C-TNT equivalents, 28-38% remained unextractable. Both unextractable and extractable unidentified substances increased throughout the 54 h 14C-TNT uptake experiment. The unidentified portions of the radiolabel were not eliminated during a 53-h depuration experiment. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) for HPLC-detectable compounds were found to be linearly related to log K(OW) (r2 = 0.9963). BCFs for 2ADNT, 4ADNT, and 2,4DANT were 10.22, 12.41, and 2.75, respectively. The BCF for TNT was 12.25, based on a molar sum of total TNT and its metabolites (SigmaTNT + 2ADNT + 4ADNT), and 2.53 based on TNT only. Compound hydrophobicity predicted the toxicokinetics and bioconcentration of compounds absorbed from water, however, the large discrepancy between the toxicokinetics of absorbed versus metabolically-generated ADNTs and the bioconcentration and toxicokinetics of the unidentified substances warrant further investigation.[1]


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