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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Self-incompatibility genotypes in almond re-evaluated by PCR, stylar ribonucleases, sequencing analysis and controlled pollinations.

As part of the almond breeding programme at IRTA, we investigated the S genotypes of several cultivars using a combination of RNase zymograms, testcrosses, pollen-tube growth analysis and molecular identification by PCR analysis. For some of the cultivars examined, discrepancies appeared between their S alleles as reported in the literature and those found in this investigation, leading to a re-evaluation of their S genotypes. Analysis of the stylar ribonucleases (RNases), which are known to correlate with S alleles, of cvs. Achaak, Ardechoise, Desmayo Largueta, Ferrastar, Gabaix, Garbi, Glorieta, Languedoc, Primorskiy and Texas revealed inconsistencies with respect to the S5 and S10 alleles. However, PCR with the conserved primer pair AS1II/AmyC5R failed to detect any of these inconsistencies. When the S alleles from Desmayo Largueta, Gabaix, Primorskiy and Texas were sequenced, Texas and Primorskiy were found to carry the reported S5 allele, while Desmayo Largueta and Gabaix carried a new allele, which has been tentatively denoted as S25 This new S allele, previously reported to be S10, was also identified in Achaak, Ardechoise and Ferrastar. The proposed new S genotypes are Achaak (S2S25), Ardechoise (S1S25), Desmayo Largueta (S1S25), Ferrastar (S2S25) and Gabaix (S10S25). The S alleles of Garbi, Glorieta, Languedoc, Texas and Primorskiy remain as reported in the literature. Testcrosses in the field and laboratory confirmed the new S genotypes. One cultivar (Gabaix) could be assigned to the existing cross-incompatibility group O of unique genotypes, and two new groups were established (XVI and XVII) consisting of two cultivars each. The clarification of these S alleles will be useful in almond breeding programmes and for planning new commercial orchards in the future.[1]


  1. Self-incompatibility genotypes in almond re-evaluated by PCR, stylar ribonucleases, sequencing analysis and controlled pollinations. López, M., Mnejja, M., Rovira, M., Collins, G., Vargas, F.J., Arús, P., Batlle, I. Theor. Appl. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
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