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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review


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High impact information on Flowers


Biological context of Flowers

  • Ca(2+) signals are thought to play important roles in plant growth and development, including key aspects of pollen tube growth and fertilization [6].
  • We found that a approximately 50% increase in the total profilin pool was necessary to half-maximally inhibit pollen tube growth, whereas a approximately 100% increase was necessary for half-maximal inhibition of cytoplasmic streaming [7].
  • The pollen tube apical region undergoes a 46% increase in cell volume after addition of 100% water (v/v), and there is an average 7-fold increase in PA [8].
  • Antisense phenotypes reveal a role for SHY, a pollen-specific leucine-rich repeat protein, in pollen tube growth [9].
  • As part of the almond breeding programme at IRTA, we investigated the S genotypes of several cultivars using a combination of RNase zymograms, testcrosses, pollen-tube growth analysis and molecular identification by PCR analysis [10].

Anatomical context of Flowers


Associations of Flowers with chemical compounds


Gene context of Flowers

  • The whole set of data supports the hypothesis that functional expression of SPIK plays a role in K(+) uptake in the growing pollen tube, and thereby in tube development and pollen competitive ability [4].
  • VGD1 was expressed specifically in pollen grain and the pollen tube [11].
  • Functional interruption of VGD1 reduced PME activity in the pollen to 82% of the wild type and greatly retarded the growth of the pollen tube in the style and transmitting tract, resulting in a significant reduction of male fertility [11].
  • In the context of the ovule, MYB98 is expressed exclusively in the synergid cells, and mutations in this gene affect the female gametophyte specifically. myb98 female gametophytes are affected in two unique features of the synergid cell, pollen tube guidance and the filiform apparatus, but are otherwise normal [21].
  • Pollen tube localization implies a role in pollen-pistil interactions for the tomato receptor-like protein kinases LePRK1 and LePRK2 [22].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Flowers


  1. A pollen tube growth stimulatory glycoprotein is deglycosylated by pollen tubes and displays a glycosylation gradient in the flower. Wu, H.M., Wang, H., Cheung, A.Y. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  2. The mechanisms of pollination and fertilization in plants. Lord, E.M., Russell, S.D. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Loosening of plant cell walls by expansins. Cosgrove, D.J. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  4. Pollen tube development and competitive ability are impaired by disruption of a Shaker K(+) channel in Arabidopsis. Mouline, K., Véry, A.A., Gaymard, F., Boucherez, J., Pilot, G., Devic, M., Bouchez, D., Thibaud, J.B., Sentenac, H. Genes Dev. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. A Rho family GTPase controls actin dynamics and tip growth via two counteracting downstream pathways in pollen tubes. Gu, Y., Fu, Y., Dowd, P., Li, S., Vernoud, V., Gilroy, S., Yang, Z. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  6. A plant plasma membrane Ca2+ pump is required for normal pollen tube growth and fertilization. Schiøtt, M., Romanowsky, S.M., Baekgaard, L., Jakobsen, M.K., Palmgren, M.G., Harper, J.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2004) [Pubmed]
  7. Actin polymerization is essential for pollen tube growth. Vidali, L., McKenna, S.T., Hepler, P.K. Mol. Biol. Cell (2001) [Pubmed]
  8. Osmotically induced cell swelling versus cell shrinking elicits specific changes in phospholipid signals in tobacco pollen tubes. Zonia, L., Munnik, T. Plant Physiol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Antisense phenotypes reveal a role for SHY, a pollen-specific leucine-rich repeat protein, in pollen tube growth. Guyon, V., Tang, W.H., Monti, M.M., Raiola, A., Lorenzo, G.D., McCormick, S., Taylor, L.P. Plant J. (2004) [Pubmed]
  10. Self-incompatibility genotypes in almond re-evaluated by PCR, stylar ribonucleases, sequencing analysis and controlled pollinations. López, M., Mnejja, M., Rovira, M., Collins, G., Vargas, F.J., Arús, P., Batlle, I. Theor. Appl. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. VANGUARD1 encodes a pectin methylesterase that enhances pollen tube growth in the Arabidopsis style and transmitting tract. Jiang, L., Yang, S.L., Xie, L.F., Puah, C.S., Zhang, X.Q., Yang, W.C., Sundaresan, V., Ye, D. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. An ankyrin repeat-containing protein, characterized as a ubiquitin ligase, is closely associated with membrane-enclosed organelles and required for pollen germination and pollen tube growth in lily. Huang, J., Chen, F., Del Casino, C., Autino, A., Shen, M., Yuan, S., Peng, J., Shi, H., Wang, C., Cresti, M., Li, Y. Plant Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  13. Molecular cloning and mRNA localization of tomato pollen profilin. Yu, L.X., Nasrallah, J., Valenta, R., Parthasarathy, M.V. Plant Mol. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  14. Transmitting tissue ECM distribution and composition, and pollen germinability in Sarcandra glabra and Chloranthus japonicus (Chloranthaceae). Hristova, K., Lam, M., Feild, T., Sage, T.L. Ann. Bot. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Cytoskeletal organisation and modification during pollen tube arrival, gamete delivery and fertilisation in Plumbago zeylanica. Huang, B.Q., Pierson, E.S., Russell, S.D., Tiezzi, A., Cresti, M. Zygote (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. A floral transmitting tissue-specific glycoprotein attracts pollen tubes and stimulates their growth. Cheung, A.Y., Wang, H., Wu, H.M. Cell (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. A lily stylar pectin is necessary for pollen tube adhesion to an in vitro stylar matrix. Mollet, J.C., Park, S.Y., Nothnagel, E.A., Lord, E.M. Plant Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  18. A potential signaling role for profilin in pollen of Papaver rhoeas. Clarke, S.R., Staiger, C.J., Gibbon, B.C., Franklin-Tong, V.E. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. A cysteine-rich extracellular protein, LAT52, interacts with the extracellular domain of the pollen receptor kinase LePRK2. Tang, W., Ezcurra, I., Muschietti, J., McCormick, S. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  20. Oscillatory chloride efflux at the pollen tube apex has a role in growth and cell volume regulation and is targeted by inositol 3,4,5,6-tetrakisphosphate. Zonia, L., Cordeiro, S., Tupý, J., Feijó, J.A. Plant Cell (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. MYB98 is required for pollen tube guidance and synergid cell differentiation in Arabidopsis. Kasahara, R.D., Portereiko, M.F., Sandaklie-Nikolova, L., Rabiger, D.S., Drews, G.N. Plant Cell (2005) [Pubmed]
  22. Pollen tube localization implies a role in pollen-pistil interactions for the tomato receptor-like protein kinases LePRK1 and LePRK2. Muschietti, J., Eyal, Y., McCormick, S. Plant Cell (1998) [Pubmed]
  23. Plant clathrin heavy chain: sequence analysis and restricted localisation in growing pollen tubes. Blackbourn, H.D., Jackson, A.P. J. Cell. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  24. Successive glycosyltransfer activity and enzymatic characterization of pectic polygalacturonate 4-alpha-galacturonosyltransferase solubilized from pollen tubes of Petunia axillaris using pyridylaminated oligogalacturonates as substrates. Akita, K., Ishimizu, T., Tsukamoto, T., Ando, T., Hase, S. Plant Physiol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  25. Alternative methods of plant transformation--a short review. Rakoczy-Trojanowska, M. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. (2002) [Pubmed]
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