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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Structure and regulation of the murine reduced folate carrier gene: identification of four noncoding exons and promoters and regulation by dietary folates.

The upstream structure and regulation of the mouse reduced folate carrier (mRFC) gene was characterized. By 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends assay and DNA sequencing from mouse tissues and 7-15-day stage embryos, mRFC transcripts with four unique 5' noncoding exons, designated mRFC-a,-b,-c, and -d, were identified mapping over 6300 bp. The 5' noncoding exons were characterized by multiple transcription starts and, for form b, two alternate splice forms. mRFC transcript forms were measured by real-time reverse transcription-PCR in mouse tissues and embryos and in L1210 leukemia and BNL CL.2 liver cell lines. The highest mRFC levels were detected in kidney and brain. mRFC-b and -c were the major transcript forms, with low levels of mRFC-a and -d. The 5'-flanking regions for exons a-d each exhibited promoter activity in reporter gene assays. mRFC transcripts and individual noncoding exons were measured in small intestine and kidney from mice fed folate-deficient or -replete diets. Mice fed the folate-deficient diet exhibited a significant (13.8-fold) increase in total mRFC transcripts and protein in the small intestine, reflecting increases in each of the mRFC-b, -c, and -d forms. Only minor changes in mRFC transcript levels or distributions were detected for kidney. Levels of folate-binding protein alpha were also increased in both small intestine and kidney in folate-deficient mice (91- and 2-fold, respectively). Multidrug resistance-associated proteins 1 and 3 were, likewise, elevated in intestine from folate-deficient mice (53- and 168-fold, respectively); however, there were no significant changes in kidney. Our results document the existence of four unique noncoding exons and promoters for mRFC and demonstrate a facile induction of mRNAs for mRFC and multidrug resistance-associated proteins 1 and 3 in intestine in response to changes in dietary folate intake.[1]

References

  1. Structure and regulation of the murine reduced folate carrier gene: identification of four noncoding exons and promoters and regulation by dietary folates. Liu, M., Ge, Y., Cabelof, D.C., Aboukameel, A., Heydari, A.R., Mohammad, R., Matherly, L.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
 
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