The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy using hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous studies have demonstrated that the erbium:YAG laser is two to three times more efficient for laser lithotripsy than the holmium:YAG laser. However, the lack of a suitable optical fiber delivery system remains a major obstacle to clinical application of Er:YAG laser lithotripsy. This paper describes the initial testing of a hybrid germanium oxide/silica optical fiber for potential endoscopic use with the Er:YAG laser. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Er:YAG laser radiation with a wavelength of 2.94 microm, a pulse energy of 10 to 600 mJ, a pulse length of 220 microsec, and pulse-repetition rates of 3 to 10 Hz was focused into either 350- or 425- microm-core hybrid germanium/silica fibers in contact with human uric acid or calcium oxalate monohydrate stones. RESULTS: Average Er:YAG pulse energies of 157 +/- 46 mJ (66 J/cm(2)) (N = 8) were delivered at 10 Hz through the 425-microm hybrid fibers in contact with urinary stones before fiber damage was observed. A maximum pulse energy of 233 mJ (98 J/cm(2)) was also measured through the hybrid fiber in contact with the stones. These values are significantly greater than the stone ablation thresholds of 15 to 23 mJ (6-10 J/cm(2)) and the fiber damage thresholds measured for germanium oxide, 18 +/- 1 mJ (13 J/cm(2)), and sapphire, 73 mJ (51 J/cm(2)), optical fibers during Er:YAG laser lithotripsy (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A prototype hybrid germanium/silica optical fiber demonstrated better performance than both germanium oxide and sapphire fibers for transmission of Er:YAG laser radiation during in vitro lithotripsy.[1]

References

  1. Erbium:YAG laser lithotripsy using hybrid germanium/silica optical fibers. Yang, Y., Chaney, C.A., Fried, N.M. J. Endourol. (2004) [Pubmed]
 
WikiGenes - Universities