The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

urate     7,9-dihydro-3H-purine-2,6,8- trione

Synonyms: Lithate, CHEMBL792, SureCN7933, ARONIS25145, Lithic acid, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of uric acid


Psychiatry related information on uric acid


High impact information on uric acid


Chemical compound and disease context of uric acid


Biological context of uric acid

  • Identification of URAT1 should provide insights into the nature of urate homeostasis, as well as lead to the development of better agents against hyperuricaemia, a disadvantage concomitant with human evolution [15].
  • MEASUREMENTS--Obesity (overall and regional), plasma glucose and insulin responses to a 75-g oral glucose load, fasting uric acid concentrations, plasma triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, insulin-mediated glucose disposal, and urinary uric acid clearance [22].
  • This relationship suggests an altered tubular sodium handling and uric acid metabolism consistent with hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance being the possible pathophysiological link [23].
  • Control of blood volume and serum uric acid, appropriate spacing of radiographic studies, and possibly urinary alkalinization and hypouricosuric drugs in high-risk patients are recommended to decrease the incidence and morbidity of contrast-mediated nephropathy [24].
  • The kinetics and characteristics of uric acid entry are shown to be the same for hemolysed and normal erythrocytes [25].

Anatomical context of uric acid


Associations of uric acid with other chemical compounds


Gene context of uric acid

  • The decrease in mitochondrial respiration in response to LPS and IFN-gamma stimulation was inhibited by the ONOO- scavenger uric acid (100 mumol/L) and by inhibitors of iNOS [34].
  • Reduction of STAT1 phosphorylation by ethanol was prevented in the presence of 4MP, DAS, or uric acid, indicating that the oxidative products from ethanol metabolism were partly responsible for suppression of STAT1 phosphorylation [35].
  • Adjustment for age, sex, BMI, hypertension, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, uric acid, C-reactive protein, and IL-6 did not alter these findings [36].
  • The association of URAT1 with PDZK1 enhanced urate transport activities in HEK293 cells (1.4-fold), and the deletion of the URAT1 C-terminal PDZ motif abolished this effect [37].
  • Familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy (FJHN [MIM 162000]) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by abnormal tubular handling of urate and late development of chronic interstitial nephritis leading to progressive renal failure [38].
  • Based on these data, we propose a novel model of transcellular urate transport in the kidney; urate [corrected] is taken up via apically located URAT1 and exits the cell via basolaterally located GLUT9, which we suggest be renamed URATv1 (voltage-driven urate transporter 1) [39].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of uric acid


  1. The management of gout. Emmerson, B.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS-related complex. A phase I trial. Lambert, J.S., Seidlin, M., Reichman, R.C., Plank, C.S., Laverty, M., Morse, G.D., Knupp, C., McLaren, C., Pettinelli, C., Valentine, F.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1990) [Pubmed]
  3. Myogenic hyperuricemia. A common pathophysiologic feature of glycogenosis types III, V, and VII. Mineo, I., Kono, N., Hara, N., Shimizu, T., Yamada, Y., Kawachi, M., Kiyokawa, H., Wang, Y.L., Tarui, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1987) [Pubmed]
  4. X-linked recessive nephrolithiasis with renal failure. Frymoyer, P.A., Scheinman, S.J., Dunham, P.B., Jones, D.B., Hueber, P., Schroeder, E.T. N. Engl. J. Med. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Hyperuricosuria due to high-dose pancreatic extract therapy in cystic fibrosis. Stapleton, F.B., Kennedy, J., Nousia-Arvanitakis, S., Linshaw, M.A. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  6. Serum uric acid is an independent predictor of all-cause mortality in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease: a preventive cardiology information system (PreCIS) database cohort study. Ioachimescu, A.G., Brennan, D.M., Hoar, B.M., Hazen, S.L., Hoogwerf, B.J. Arthritis Rheum. (2008) [Pubmed]
  7. Sugar-sweetened soft drinks, diet soft drinks, and serum uric acid level: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Choi, J.W., Ford, E.S., Gao, X., Choi, H.K. Arthritis Rheum. (2008) [Pubmed]
  8. Obesity and knee osteoarthritis. The Framingham Study. Felson, D.T., Anderson, J.J., Naimark, A., Walker, A.M., Meenan, R.F. Ann. Intern. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. The association of dyslipoproteinemia with corneal arcus and xanthelasma. The Lipid Research Clinics Program Prevalence Study. Segal, P., Insull, W., Chambless, L.E., Stinnett, S., LaRosa, J.C., Weissfeld, L., Halfon, S., Kwiterovitch, P.O., Little, J.A. Circulation (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. Elevation of serum uric acid as a clue to alcohol abuse. Drum, D.E., Goldman, P.A., Jankowski, C.B. Arch. Intern. Med. (1981) [Pubmed]
  11. Low glomerular filtration in the population: prevalence, associated disorders, and awareness. Cirillo, M., Laurenzi, M., Mancini, M., Zanchetti, A., Lombardi, C., De Santo, N.G. Kidney Int. (2006) [Pubmed]
  12. Impaired differentiation of HPRT-deficient dopaminergic neurons: a possible mechanism underlying neuronal dysfunction in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Yeh, J., Zheng, S., Howard, B.D. J. Neurosci. Res. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Stroke and alcohol consumption. Gill, J.S., Zezulka, A.V., Shipley, M.J., Gill, S.K., Beevers, D.G. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. Abnormal purine metabolism and purine overproduction in a patient deficient in purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Cohen, A., Doyle, D., Martin, D.W., Ammann, A.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  15. Molecular identification of a renal urate anion exchanger that regulates blood urate levels. Enomoto, A., Kimura, H., Chairoungdua, A., Shigeta, Y., Jutabha, P., Cha, S.H., Hosoyamada, M., Takeda, M., Sekine, T., Igarashi, T., Matsuo, H., Kikuchi, Y., Oda, T., Ichida, K., Hosoya, T., Shimokata, K., Niwa, T., Kanai, Y., Endou, H. Nature (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Generation of cDNA probes directed by amino acid sequence: cloning of urate oxidase. Lee, C.C., Wu, X.W., Gibbs, R.A., Cook, R.G., Muzny, D.M., Caskey, C.T. Science (1988) [Pubmed]
  17. The fanconi syndrome in Basenji dogs: a new model for renal transport defects. Bovee, K.C., Joyce, T., Reynolds, R., Segal, S. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Ethanol-induced hyperuricemia: evidence for increased urate production by activation of adenine nucleotide turnover. Faller, J., Fox, I.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1982) [Pubmed]
  19. Cyclosporine-induced hyperuricemia and gout. Lin, H.Y., Rocher, L.L., McQuillan, M.A., Schmaltz, S., Palella, T.D., Fox, I.H. N. Engl. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. Allopurinol and gouty hyperuricemia. Efficacy of a single daily dose. Rodnan, G.P., Robin, J.A., Tolchin, S.F., Elion, G.B. JAMA (1975) [Pubmed]
  21. Uricosuric agents in uremic sera. Identification of indoxyl sulfata and hippuric acid. Boumendil-Podevin, E.F., Podevin, R.A., Richet, G. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. Relationship between resistance to insulin-mediated glucose uptake, urinary uric acid clearance, and plasma uric acid concentration. Facchini, F., Chen, Y.D., Hollenbeck, C.B., Reaven, G.M. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  23. Uric acid metabolism and tubular sodium handling. Results from a population-based study. Cappuccio, F.P., Strazzullo, P., Farinaro, E., Trevisan, M. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. Acute renal failure. Association with administration of radiographic contrast material. Krumlovsky, F.A., Simon, N., Santhanam, S., del Greco, F., Roxe, D., Pomaranc, M.M. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. Enzymatic degradation of uric acid by uricase-loaded human erythrocytes. Ihler, G., Lantzy, A., Purpura, J., Glew, R.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  26. Urate spherulites in gouty synovia. Fiechtner, J.J., Simkin, P.A. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  27. Lipoproteins containing apoprotein B are a major regulator of neutrophil responses to monosodium urate crystals. Terkeltaub, R., Curtiss, L.K., Tenner, A.J., Ginsberg, M.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1984) [Pubmed]
  28. pH gradient-stimulated transport of urate and p-aminohippurate in dog renal microvillus membrane vesicles. Blomstedt, J.W., Aronson, P.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. Paradoxical effects of pyrazinoate and nicotinate on urate transport in dog renal microvillus membranes. Guggino, S.E., Aronson, P.S. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  30. Ticrynafen and hydrochlorothiazide. A double-blind study of antihypertensive properties with an open crossover. Miller, S.A., Vertes, V. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  31. Bactericidal activity of a superoxide anion-generating system. A model for the polymorphonuclear leukocyte. Rosen, H., Klebanoff, S.J. J. Exp. Med. (1979) [Pubmed]
  32. Antimicrobial actions of the NADPH phagocyte oxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase in experimental salmonellosis. I. Effects on microbial killing by activated peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Vazquez-Torres, A., Jones-Carson, J., Mastroeni, P., Ischiropoulos, H., Fang, F.C. J. Exp. Med. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Human suction blister interstitial fluid prevents metal ion-dependent oxidation of low density lipoprotein by macrophages and in cell-free systems. Dabbagh, A.J., Frei, B. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
  34. Role of poly-ADP ribosyltransferase activation in the vascular contractile and energetic failure elicited by exogenous and endogenous nitric oxide and peroxynitrite. Szabó, C., Zingarelli, B., Salzman, A.L. Circ. Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Ethanol metabolism alters interferon gamma signaling in recombinant HepG2 cells. Osna, N.A., Clemens, D.L., Donohue, T.M. Hepatology (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Association of systemic chemokine concentrations with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes: results from the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg Survey S4 (KORA S4). Herder, C., Haastert, B., Müller-Scholze, S., Koenig, W., Thorand, B., Holle, R., Wichmann, H.E., Scherbaum, W.A., Martin, S., Kolb, H. Diabetes (2005) [Pubmed]
  37. The multivalent PDZ domain-containing protein PDZK1 regulates transport activity of renal urate-anion exchanger URAT1 via its C terminus. Anzai, N., Miyazaki, H., Noshiro, R., Khamdang, S., Chairoungdua, A., Shin, H.J., Enomoto, A., Sakamoto, S., Hirata, T., Tomita, K., Kanai, Y., Endou, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  38. A cluster of mutations in the UMOD gene causes familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy with abnormal expression of uromodulin. Dahan, K., Devuyst, O., Smaers, M., Vertommen, D., Loute, G., Poux, J.M., Viron, B., Jacquot, C., Gagnadoux, M.F., Chauveau, D., Büchler, M., Cochat, P., Cosyns, J.P., Mougenot, B., Rider, M.H., Antignac, C., Verellen-Dumoulin, C., Pirson, Y. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Plasma urate level is directly regulated by a voltage-driven urate efflux transporter URATv1 (SLC2A9) in humans. Anzai, N., Ichida, K., Jutabha, P., Kimura, T., Babu, E., Jin, C.J., Srivastava, S., Kitamura, K., Hisatome, I., Endou, H., Sakurai, H. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  40. Abnormal glucose metabolism and pancreatic cancer mortality. Gapstur, S.M., Gann, P.H., Lowe, W., Liu, K., Colangelo, L., Dyer, A. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  41. Serum uric acid and cardiovascular mortality the NHANES I epidemiologic follow-up study, 1971-1992. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Fang, J., Alderman, M.H. JAMA (2000) [Pubmed]
  42. Percutaneous nephrostomy and uric acid stones. Spataro, R.F. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  43. Patterns of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate and ribose-5-phosphate concentration and generation in fibroblasts from patients with gout and purine overproduction. Becker, M.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1976) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities