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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Characterization of calves exhibiting a novel inheritable TNF-alpha hyperresponsiveness to endotoxin: associations with increased pathophysiological complications.

A subpopulation of calves, herein termed "hyperresponders" (HPR), was identified and defined by the patterns of plasma TNF-alpha concentrations that developed following two challenges with endotoxin (LPS, 0.8 mug Escherichia coli 055:B5 LPS/kg(0.75) live body wt) separated by 5 days. The principle characteristic of HPR calves was a failure to develop tolerance to repeated LPS challenge that was evident in the magnitude of the TNF-alpha concentrations and prolonged severity of pathological sequellae. Whereas calves failing to develop LPS tolerance were identified on the basis of their excessive in vivo plasma TNF-alpha concentration responses, in vitro TNF-alpha responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from each calf and challenged with LPS or PMA did not correlate or predict the magnitude of in vivo plasma TNF response of the calf. Intentional breeding to obtain calves from bulls and/or cows documented as HPR resulted in offspring displaying the HPR character when similar progeny calves were tested with LPS in vivo, with extensive controls in place to account for sources of variability in the general TNF-alpha response to LPS that might compromise interpretation of the data. Feed intake, clinical serology and hematology profiles, and acute-phase protein responses of HPR calves following LPS were significantly different from those of calves displaying tolerance. These results suggest that the pattern of plasma TNF-alpha changes that evolve from a low-level double LPS challenge effectively reveal the presence of a genetic potential for animals to display excessive or prolonged pathological response to LPS-related stress and compromised prognosis for recovery.[1]


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