The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

TNF  -  tumor necrosis factor

Bos taurus

Synonyms: TNF-a, TNF-alpha, TNFa
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of TNF


Psychiatry related information on TNF


High impact information on TNF

  • In vitro, TNF-alpha stimulates chemotaxis of bovine adrenal capillary endothelial cells and induces cultures of these cells grown on type-1 collagen gels to form capillary-tube-like structures [6].
  • We show here that tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a secretory product of activated macrophages that is believed to mediate tumour cytotoxicity, is a potent inducer of new blood vessel growth (angiogenesis) [6].
  • In vivo, TNF-alpha induces capillary blood vessel formation in the rat cornea and the developing chick chorioallantoic membrane at very low doses [6].
  • The angiogenic activity produced by activated murine peritoneal macrophages is completely neutralized by a polyclonal antibody to TNF-alpha, suggesting immunological features are common to TNF-alpha and the protein responsible for macrophage-derived angiogenic activity [6].
  • The mechanisms underlying this change in the affinity of endothelium for TNF were studied in four settings [7].

Chemical compound and disease context of TNF


Biological context of TNF


Anatomical context of TNF


Associations of TNF with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of TNF


Other interactions of TNF

  • Enhanced SEMA5A induces expression of at least nine genes related to the host's immune response, including TNF-alpha and IL-8 [27].
  • Variables measured included expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, transforming growth factor-beta, and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS-3); apoptosis of monocytes; acidification of phagosomes; and killing of MAP [28].
  • Although IL-2 mRNA expression in ConA-stimulated PBMC from newborn calves was weaker than that in those from adult cows of ConA-stimulated controls, the expression levels became comparable after pretreatment with IL-1beta, TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma [29].
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), which destabilizes eNOS mRNA, increased the binding activity of the cytosolic proteins in a time-dependent manner [22].
  • RT-PCR analysis of cytokine expression by T cell lines which were dominated by gammadelta T cells revealed expression of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, TNF-beta, IL-2Ralpha transcripts [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of TNF

  • Quantitation of the cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-8 and IL-10 in bovine milk using real-time TaqMan PCR [31].
  • Among the agents likely to be present in such supernatants are monocyte-derived tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and lymphocyte-derived tumor necrosis factor (TNF-beta) (lymphotoxin), both of which have recently been shown to stimulate bone resorption in organ culture [20].
  • Finally, the WEHI 164 (clone 13) bioassay was used to show that Lkt/LPS synergism resulted in enhanced secretion of biologically active TNF-alpha [32].
  • Northern blot analysis of total RNA showed that P. haemolytica induced early, abundant, and consistent synthesis of IL-1, TNF-alpha, and IL-8 mRNA [33].
  • METHOD: The effects of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8 were tested using cell viability assay, DNA fragmentation analysis (DNA laddering), Western blot analysis (Anti-poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase [PARP] antibody), and caspase-3 activity [24].


  1. Cytokine mRNA expression in B cells from bovine leukemia virus-infected cattle with persistent lymphocytosis. Amills, M., Norimine, J., Olmstead, C.A., Lewin, H.A. Cytokine (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Differential responses of bovine macrophages to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Weiss, D.J., Evanson, O.A., Moritz, A., Deng, M.Q., Abrahamsen, M.S. Infect. Immun. (2002) [Pubmed]
  3. Characterization of calves exhibiting a novel inheritable TNF-alpha hyperresponsiveness to endotoxin: associations with increased pathophysiological complications. Elsasser, T.H., Blum, J.W., Kahl, S. J. Appl. Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  4. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha up-regulation in spontaneously proliferating cells derived from bovine leukemia virus-infected cattle. Konnai, S., Usui, T., Ikeda, M., Kohara, J., Hirata, T., Okada, K., Ohashi, K., Onuma, M. Arch. Virol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  5. Quantitation of bovine TNF-alpha mRNA by reverse transcription and competitive polymerase chain reaction amplification. Bienhoff, S.E., Allen, G.K. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Macrophage-induced angiogenesis is mediated by tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Leibovich, S.J., Polverini, P.J., Shepard, H.M., Wiseman, D.M., Shively, V., Nuseir, N. Nature (1987) [Pubmed]
  7. Enhanced responsiveness of endothelium in the growing/motile state to tumor necrosis factor/cachectin. Gerlach, H., Lieberman, H., Bach, R., Godman, G., Brett, J., Stern, D. J. Exp. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  8. Role of inflammatory mediators in priming, activation, and deformability of bovine neutrophils. McClenahan, D., Fagliari, J., Evanson, O., Weiss, D. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  9. In vitro expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin 1beta, and interleukin 8 mRNA by bovine macrophages following exposure to Porphyromonas levii. Walter, M.R., Morck, D.W. Can. J. Vet. Res. (2002) [Pubmed]
  10. Endotoxemia in pregnant cows: Comparisons of maternal and fetal effects utilizing the chronically catheterized fetus. Foley, G.L., Schlafer, D.H., Elsasser, T.H., Mitchell, M. Theriogenology (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Tumor necrosis factor as a potential mediator of acute metabolic and hormonal responses to endotoxemia in calves. Kenison, D.C., Elsasser, T.H., Fayer, R. Am. J. Vet. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. The effect of steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on the cellular immunity of calves with experimentally-induced local lung inflammation. Bednarek, D., Szuster-Ciesielska, A., Zdzisiñska, B., Kondracki, M., Paduch, R., Kandefer-Szerszeñ, M. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  13. Mitochondrial Dok-4 recruits Src kinase and regulates NF-kappaB activation in endothelial cells. Itoh, S., Lemay, S., Osawa, M., Che, W., Duan, Y., Tompkins, A., Brookes, P.S., Sheu, S.S., Abe, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  14. Constitutive and inducible expression of heat shock protein HSP72 in oligodendrocytes in culture. Satoh, J., Kim, S.U. Neuroreport (1995) [Pubmed]
  15. TNF-alpha inhibits flow and insulin signaling leading to NO production in aortic endothelial cells. Kim, F., Gallis, B., Corson, M.A. Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  16. Cerivastatin prevents tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced downregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase: role of endothelial cytosolic proteins. González-Fernández, F., Jiménez, A., López-Blaya, A., Velasco, S., Arriero, M.M., Celdrán, A., Rico, L., Farré, J., Casado, S., López-Farré, A. Atherosclerosis (2001) [Pubmed]
  17. Cytokine expression profiles of bovine lymph nodes: effects of Mycobacterium bovis infection and bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination. Widdison, S., Schreuder, L.J., Villarreal-Ramos, B., Howard, C.J., Watson, M., Coffey, T.J. Clin. Exp. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  18. Mitogen activated protein kinase(p38) pathway is an important component of the anti-inflammatory response in Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-infected bovine monocytes. Souza, C.D., Evanson, O.A., Weiss, D.J. Microb. Pathog. (2006) [Pubmed]
  19. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) inhibits progesterone and estradiol-17beta production from cultured granulosa cells: presence of TNFalpha receptors in bovine granulosa and theca cells. Sakumoto, R., Shibaya, M., Okuda, K. J. Reprod. Dev. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta induce osteoblastic cells to stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption. Thomson, B.M., Mundy, G.R., Chambers, T.J. J. Immunol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  21. Association among filamentous actin content, CD11b expression, and membrane deformability in stimulated and unstimulated bovine neutrophils. McClenahan, D.J., Evanson, O.A., Walcheck, B.K., Weiss, D.J. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  22. Endothelial cytosolic proteins bind to the 3' untranslated region of endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA: regulation by tumor necrosis factor alpha. Alonso, J., Sánchez de Miguel, L., Montón, M., Casado, S., López-Farré, A. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  23. Adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins modulates bovine neutrophil responses to inflammatory mediators. Borgquist, J.D., Quinn, M.T., Swain, S.D. J. Leukoc. Biol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  24. Cytotoxicity of cytokines in cerebral microvascular endothelial cell. Kimura, H., Gules, I., Meguro, T., Zhang, J.H. Brain Res. (2003) [Pubmed]
  25. Effect of C-reactive protein on Fcgamma receptor II in cultured bovine endothelial cells. Escribano-Burgos, M., López-Farré, A., del Mar González, M., Macaya, C., García-Méndez, A., Mateos-Cáceres, P.J., Alonso-Orgaz, S., Carrasco, C., Rico, L.A., Porres Cubero, J.C. Clin. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  26. IL-4 and IL-10 inhibition of IFN-gamma- and TNF-alpha-dependent nitric oxide production from bovine mononuclear phagocytes exposed to Babesia bovis merozoites. Goff, W.L., Johnson, W.C., Parish, S.M., Barrington, G.M., Elsasser, T.H., Davis, W.C., Valdez, R.A. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  27. Evidence that bovine forebrain embryonic zinc finger-like gene influences immune response associated with mastitis resistance. Sugimoto, M., Fujikawa, A., Womack, J.E., Sugimoto, Y. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  28. Expression of interleukin-10 and suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 associated with susceptibility of cattle to infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis. Weiss, D.J., Evanson, O.A., Souza, C.D. Am. J. Vet. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  29. Proinflammatory cytokines in bovine colostrum potentiate the mitogenic response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from newborn calves through IL-2 and CD25 expression. Yamanaka, H., Hagiwara, K., Kirisawa, R., Iwai, H. Microbiol. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  30. Immunisation of cattle against heartwater by infection with Cowdria ruminantium elicits T lymphocytes that recognise major antigenic proteins 1 and 2 of the agent. Mwangi, D.M., McKeever, D.J., Nyanjui, J.K., Barbet, A.F., Mahan, S.M. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  31. Quantitation of the cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-8 and IL-10 in bovine milk using real-time TaqMan PCR. Peli, A., Luciani, A., De Santis, P., Polci, A., Britti, D. Vet. Res. Commun. (2004) [Pubmed]
  32. Lipopolysaccharide enhances cytolysis and inflammatory cytokine induction in bovine alveolar macrophages exposed to Pasteurella (Mannheimia) haemolytica leukotoxin. Lafleur, R.L., Malazdrewich, C., Jeyaseelan, S., Bleifield, E., Abrahamsen, M.S., Maheswaran, S.K. Microb. Pathog. (2001) [Pubmed]
  33. Cytokine profiles following interaction between bovine alveolar macrophages and Pasteurella haemolytica. Morsey, M.A., Van-Kessel, A.G., Mori, Y., Popowych, Y., Godson, D., Campos, M., Babiuk, L.A. Microb. Pathog. (1999) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities