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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Bone morphogenetic protein 15 and growth differentiation factor 9 co-operate to regulate granulosa cell function.

The oocyte-secreted polypeptide growth factors, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP15, also known as GDF9B) have both been shown to be essential for ovarian follicular growth and function. The effects of murine (m) and ovine (o) GDF9 as well as oBMP15, alone or together, on 3H-thymidine uptake and progesterone and inhibin production by granulosa cells from rats were determined. Murine GDF9 stimulated thymidine incorporation by granulosa cells whereas oGDF9 and oBMP15 alone had no effect. However, oBMP15 given together with mGDF9 or oGDF9 was very potent in stimulating 3H-thymidine incorporation by granulosa cells with a greater than 3-fold stimulation compared with any growth factor alone. The synergistic effect of oBMP15 and oGDF9 was almost completely blocked by antibodies generated against these growth factors when administered either alone or in combination. While neither GDF9 (murine or ovine) nor oBMP15 were able to modulate FSH-stimulated progesterone production on their own, FSH-stimulated progesterone production by granulosa cells was potently inhibited when BMP15 and GDF9 were administered together. Immunoreactive alpha-inhibin levels increased more than 15-fold from granulosa cells when BMP15 and GDF9 were given together whereas consistent stimulatory effects of either growth factor alone were not observed. The effects of GDF9 and BMP15, when added together, were different than those observed for the growth factors alone. Therefore, we hypothesize that within the ovary, these oocyte-secreted growth factors co-operate to regulate proliferation and gonadotropin-induced differentiation of granulosa cells in mammals.[1]


  1. Bone morphogenetic protein 15 and growth differentiation factor 9 co-operate to regulate granulosa cell function. McNatty, K.P., Juengel, J.L., Reader, K.L., Lun, S., Myllymaa, S., Lawrence, S.B., Western, A., Meerasahib, M.F., Mottershead, D.G., Groome, N.P., Ritvos, O., Laitinen, M.P. Reproduction (2005) [Pubmed]
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