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Gene Review

Bmp15  -  bone morphogenetic protein 15

Mus musculus

Synonyms: AU015375, AU018861, AU021453, BMP-15, Bmp-15, ...
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Disease relevance of Bmp15

  • Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein 15 (BMP-15) gene cause female infertility in the monoovulatory human and sheep; however, in the polyovulatory mouse, loss-of-function of BMP-15 results only in reduced ovulation rate [1].

High impact information on Bmp15

  • Consistent with these findings, abnormal double-oocyte follicles, indicative of aberrant BMP-15/GDF-9 expression, were observed in GCNF(fl/fl)Zp3Cre(+) females [2].
  • Our results show that GCNF directly regulates paracrine communication between the oocyte and somatic cells by regulating the expression of BMP-15 and GDF-9, to affect female fertility [2].
  • Here, we found that the functional mature form of BMP-15 is barely detectable in the mouse oocytes until just before ovulation, when it is markedly increased [1].
  • The species-specific differences in the phenotypes caused by BMP-15 mutations may thus be attributed to the temporal variations in the production of the mature form of BMP-15 [1].
  • Markers for primordial germ cell proliferation and oocyte growth, such as the c-Kit/Kit-ligand and bone morphogenetic protein-15 (BMP-15) were downregulated in both null and +/- ovaries, suggesting disrupted communication between oocyte and GCs [3].

Biological context of Bmp15


Anatomical context of Bmp15

  • Immunoreactive alpha-inhibin levels increased more than 15-fold from granulosa cells when BMP15 and GDF9 were given together whereas consistent stimulatory effects of either growth factor alone were not observed [7].
  • After 24 h of culture in the presence of 0.5 IU/ml of FSH, cumulus shells cocultured with buffer- and Bmp15 dsRNA-injected oocytes exhibited a high degree of expansion, whereas cumulus shells cocultured with Gdf9 dsRNA-injected oocytes exhibited only limited expansion [8].
  • GCNF-dependent repression of BMP-15 and GDF-9 mediates gamete regulation of female fertility [2].
  • The antigens tested were bone morphogenic protein 15 (BMP15), oviduct glycoprotein (OGP) and ubiquitin-tagged mZP3 [9].

Associations of Bmp15 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of Bmp15

  • Although BMP-15 is expressed identically to GDF-9, its role in regulating ovarian function is still unknown [10].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Bmp15


  1. A unique preovulatory expression pattern plays a key role in the physiological functions of BMP-15 in the mouse. Yoshino, O., McMahon, H.E., Sharma, S., Shimasaki, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2006) [Pubmed]
  2. GCNF-dependent repression of BMP-15 and GDF-9 mediates gamete regulation of female fertility. Lan, Z.J., Gu, P., Xu, X., Jackson, K.J., DeMayo, F.J., O'Malley, B.W., Cooney, A.J. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Developmental and molecular aberrations associated with deterioration of oogenesis during complete or partial follicle-stimulating hormone receptor deficiency in mice. Yang, Y., Balla, A., Danilovich, N., Sairam, M.R. Biol. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. Gene expression in mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos: use of suppression subtractive hybridization to identify oocyte- and embryo-specific genes. Zeng, F., Schultz, R.M. Biol. Reprod. (2003) [Pubmed]
  5. A novel growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) related factor is co-expressed with GDF-9 in mouse oocytes during folliculogenesis. Laitinen, M., Vuojolainen, K., Jaatinen, R., Ketola, I., Aaltonen, J., Lehtonen, E., Heikinheimo, M., Ritvos, O. Mech. Dev. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Localization of growth differentiation factor-9 (GDF-9) mRNA and protein in rat ovaries and cDNA cloning of rat GDF-9 and its novel homolog GDF-9B. Jaatinen, R., Laitinen, M.P., Vuojolainen, K., Aaltonen, J., Louhio, H., Heikinheimo, K., Lehtonen, E., Ritvos, O. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Bone morphogenetic protein 15 and growth differentiation factor 9 co-operate to regulate granulosa cell function. McNatty, K.P., Juengel, J.L., Reader, K.L., Lun, S., Myllymaa, S., Lawrence, S.B., Western, A., Meerasahib, M.F., Mottershead, D.G., Groome, N.P., Ritvos, O., Laitinen, M.P. Reproduction (2005) [Pubmed]
  8. RNA interference evidence that growth differentiation factor-9 mediates oocyte regulation of cumulus expansion in mice. Gui, L.M., Joyce, I.M. Biol. Reprod. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Viral vectored immunocontraception: Screening of multiple fertility antigens using murine cytomegalovirus as a vaccine vector. Redwood, A.J., Harvey, N.L., Lloyd, M., Lawson, M.A., Hardy, C.M., Shellam, G.R. Vaccine (2007) [Pubmed]
  10. Oocyte-expressed TGF-beta superfamily members in female fertility. Elvin, J.A., Yan, C., Matzuk, M.M. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Immunoneutralization of growth differentiation factor 9 reveals it partially accounts for mouse oocyte mitogenic activity. Gilchrist, R.B., Ritter, L.J., Cranfield, M., Jeffery, L.A., Amato, F., Scott, S.J., Myllymaa, S., Kaivo-Oja, N., Lankinen, H., Mottershead, D.G., Groome, N.P., Ritvos, O. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
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