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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Cyclic AMP affects the haemocyte responses of larval Galleria mellonella to selected antigens.

Signal transduction of the innate immediate responses of insect haemocytes to foreign matter is rarely considered. Herein using a combination of adenylate cyclase inhibitors and activators and phosphodiesterase inhibitors we determined that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) at high levels normally impairs non-self response. Haemocyte contact with glass and bacteria lowered cAMP in vitro. Inactive phosphodiesterases, including type 4, impaired haemocyte reactions in vitro. Using the drugs in vivo to modulate adenylate cyclase and phosphodiesterases altered the total and types of haemocytes. Adenylate cyclase inhibitors and etazolate (a type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitor) alone produced changes in the haemograms similar to those caused by Bacillus subtilis. Sequential injections of an enzyme modulator followed by B. subtilis impaired bacterial removal due (1) in the case of enzyme inhibitors, to the removal of haemocytes prior to bacterial challenge and (2) in the case of forskolin and IBMX to the shut-down of the haemocytes. Activating adenylate cyclase or inhibiting phosphodiesterase impaired bacterial removal when co-injecting the compounds and bacteria.[1]


  1. Cyclic AMP affects the haemocyte responses of larval Galleria mellonella to selected antigens. Marin, D., Dunphy, G.B., Mandato, C.A. J. Insect Physiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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