The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Single-stranded small interfering RNA are more immunostimulatory than their double-stranded counterparts: A central role for 2'-hydroxyl uridines in immune responses.

It has recently become apparent that certain small interfering RNA (siRNA) sequences stimulate the innate immunity through endosomal Toll-like receptors (TLR), particularly TLR7 and TLR8. However, it remains unclear whether siRNA duplexes act as specific ligands for these receptors. To address this question and to overcome the problem of immune activation by siRNA, several RNA sequences were chemically synthesized and their effects were investigated. Results indicate that human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) recognize and respond to a large number of sense or antisense single-stranded (ss) siRNA. In most cases immunostimulatory RNA motifs are more effectively recognized by innate immunity in the context of ss siRNA as compared to siRNA duplexes. Novel immunostimulatory RNA motifs were identified and their replacement with adenosines abrogated immune activation. Most notably, replacement of the 2'-hydroxyl uridines with either 2'-fluoro, 2'-deoxy or 2'-O-methyl uridines abrogated immune activation. Thus, immune recognition of RNA by TLR can be evaded by 2'-ribose modifications of only uridines. Collectively, the data should facilitate the development of siRNA therapeutics and expand the understanding of how RNA is sensed by innate immunity.[1]


WikiGenes - Universities