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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Sample pretreatment method for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in bird livers using ultrasonic extraction followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

A simple and reliable sample methodology based on simultaneous ultrasonic extraction, sulfuric acid clean-up and headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry has been developed as an advantageous analytical tool for the determination of seven polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in bird livers at low levels. The influence of several parameters on the efficiency of the proposed method was systematically investigated. The clean-up efficiency of sulfuric acid treatment was tested and compared with those of column chromatography (Flosiril, silica gel and alumina) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) (Supelclean ENVI-Carb cartridge) procedures. The use of sulfuric acid in the clean-up step prior to headspace solid-phase microextraction analysis allows the removal of interfering matrix compounds present in the liver extracts that would otherwise cause severe ionization suppression of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) during the ionization process. The optimized method had good linearity (R2>0.99) over the range studied (5-500 ng/g wet weight) and showed satisfactory level of precision, with RSD values lower than 10.6%. The obtained relative recoveries ranged between 63 and 94%. The limits of detection (0.06-0.63 ng/g wet weight) were low enough to check for harmful levels of polychlorinated biphenyls in biological samples, and were well below most of the restrictive limits established by European Union regulations. The method was found to be reliable under the operational conditions proposed and was applied successfully to the analysis of individual polychlorinated biphenyls in liver tissues. The results obtained from five bird species from Greece revealed the presence of the target compounds in all samples analyzed, at levels ranging between 0.54 and 39.45 ng/g wet weight.[1]


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