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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Human ACAT inhibitory effects of shikonin derivatives from Lithospermum erythrorhizon.

Three naphthoquinones were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation from the CHCl(3) extracts of roots of Lithospermum erythrorhizon. They were identified as acetylshikonin (1), isobutyrylshikonin (2), and beta-hydroxyisovalerylshikonin (3) on the basis of their spectroscopic analyses. The compounds 1-3 were tested for their inhibitory activities against human ACAT-1 ( hACAT-1) or human ACAT-2 ( hACAT-2). Compound 2 preferentially inhibited hACAT-2 (IC(50)=57.5muM) than hACAT-1 (32% at 120muM), whereas compounds 1 and 3 showed weak inhibitory activities in both hACAT-1 and -2. To develop more potent hACAT inhibitor, shikonin derivatives (5-11) were synthesized by semi-synthesis of shikonin (4), which was prepared by hydrolysis of 1-3. Among them, compounds 5 and 7 exhibited the strong inhibitory activities against hACAT-1 and -2. Furthermore, we demonstrated that compound 7 behaved as a potent ACAT inhibitor in not only in vitro assay system but also cell-based assay system.[1]


  1. Human ACAT inhibitory effects of shikonin derivatives from Lithospermum erythrorhizon. An, S., Park, Y.D., Paik, Y.K., Jeong, T.S., Lee, W.S. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. (2007) [Pubmed]
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