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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Coupling of headspace solid phase microextraction with ultrasonic extraction for the determination of chlorinated pesticides in bird livers using gas chromatography.

In the present study a combined analytical method involving ultrasonic extraction (USE), sulfuric acid clean-up and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was developed for the determination of chlorinated pesticides (CPs) in bird livers. Extraction of CPs from 1g of liver was performed by ultrasonication for 30 min using 20 mL of solvent mixture (n-hexane:acetone (4:1, v/v)). The extract was subsequently subjected to a clean-up step for lipid removal. A comparative study on several clean-up procedures prior to the HS-SPME enrichment step was performed in order to achieve maximum recovery and optimal clean-up efficiency, which would provide suitable limits of detection in the gas chromatographic analysis. For this purpose, destructive (sulfuric acid or sodium hydroxide treatment) and non-destructive (alumina column) clean-up procedures has been assayed. The treatment of the extract with 40% (v/v) H2SO4 prior to HS-SPME process showed the best performance since lower detection limits and higher extraction efficiencies were obtained. The method detection limit ranged from 0.5 to 1.0 ng g(-1) wet weight and peak areas were proportional to analyte concentrations (r2>0.990) in the range of 5-500 ng g(-1) wet wt. The method was found to be reproducible (R.S.D.<10%) and effective under the operational conditions proposed and was applied successfully to the analysis of CPs in liver tissues of various bird species from Greece.[1]


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