The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Effects of botulinum toxin on neuromuscular transmission in the rat.

1. Botulinum toxin (BoTx) type A partially blocks spontaneous transmitter release from nerve terminals in the rat. Minature end-plate potentials (m.e.p.p.s) are present at all end-plates, initially with a low frequency but increasing with time after posoning. Their amplitude distribution is at first skew with a predominace of very small m.e.p.p.s but, after a few days, larger than normal m.e.p.p.s appear. 2. Tetanic nerve stimulation, Black Widow Spider Venom, the Caionophore A 23187 or mechanical damage to nerve terminals increases the frequency of m.e.p.p.s and alters the amplitude distribution of m.e.p.p.s towards a normal Gaussian one; the m.e.p.p. size approaches that seen at normal end-plates. This was seen at any time after poisoning. 3. Nerve stimulation gives rise to end-plate potentials (e.p.p.s) of low amplitude and high failure rate. Statistical analysis indicates that evoked release is quantal in nature and follows Poisson statistics, quantum size being initially very small, but after a few days approaching normal size. Short-term tetanic nerve stimulation reversibly increases the quantum content of e.p.p.s and during early stages of paralysis long-term (2 hr) stimulation causes an apparently permanent increase in quantum size. 4. Raising the extracellular Ca concentration from 2 to 16 mM increases the frequency of m.e.p.p.s in normal muscle but not in BoTx poisoned ones. K-free medium or ouabain, which are believed to raise the intracellular Ca concentration in nerve terminals, similarly increases m.e.p.p. frequency in normal but not in poisoned muscles. When the Ca-ionophore A 23187 is used together with high extracellular Ca (greater than 4 mM) massive release of transmitter occurs from poisoned terminals. 5. The extracellular Ca concentration which causes a certain level of transmitter release in reponse to nerve impulses is considerably higher at BoTx poisoned end-plates than at normal ones. The slope value for Ca dependence of transmitter release is about 1-5 compared with about 3 at normal end-plates. 6. Tetraethylammonium (TEA) greatly increases the amount of transmitter released by nerve impulses and restores neuromuscular transmission during all stages of poisoning, although it has not effect on spontaneous transmitter release. In the presence of TEA the power relation between Ca concentration and quantum content at the BoTx poisoned end-plate is similar to that seen at normal end-plates. 7. It is suggested that in BoTx poisoning the mechanism for transmitter release has a reduced sensitivity to Ca, and the level for activation by intracellular Ca is elevated. Once the intracellular concentration of Ca is raised to this level, by tetanic nerve stimulation, mechanical injury to nerve terminals, the Ca-ionophore or the prolongation of the nerve action potential with TEA, augmented transmitter release occurs, similar to that which occurs in normal nerve terminals at a lower level of Ca.[1]


  1. Effects of botulinum toxin on neuromuscular transmission in the rat. Cull-Candy, S.G., Lundh, H., Thesleff, S. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1976) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities