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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Regulation of cardiac specific nkx2.5 gene activity by small ubiquitin-like modifier.

The cardiac specific homeobox gene nkx2.5, a member of the nk-2 class family, plays a central role in cardiogenesis and is a target of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO). Nkx2.5 was modified by SUMO on its 51st amino acid, a lysine residue conserved across species but absent in other nk-2 members. Conversion of this lysine to an arginine (K51R) substantially reduced Nkx2.5 DNA binding and also its transcriptional activity. Unexpectedly, mutant K51R was targeted by ubiquitin. E3 ligase PIAS proteins PIAS1, PIASx, and PIASy, but not PIAS3, enhanced SUMO-1 attachment to Nkx2.5 on the primary SUMO acceptor site. SUMO-2 linkage to Nkx2.5 was catalyzed only by PIASx and not by other PIAS proteins. SUMO conjugation stabilized the formation of Nkx2.5-containing complexes that led to robust transcriptional activation. Thus, SUMO modification serves as a positive regulator for Nkx2.5 transcriptional activity.[1]


  1. Regulation of cardiac specific nkx2.5 gene activity by small ubiquitin-like modifier. Wang, J., Zhang, H., Iyer, D., Feng, X.H., Schwartz, R.J. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
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