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Chemical Compound Review

Enisyl     (2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid

Synonyms: Aminutrin, Lysinum, Gidrolizin, Hydrolysin, Lisina, ...
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Disease relevance of lysine


Psychiatry related information on lysine


High impact information on lysine

  • A yeast protein, Sui3, isolated as an extragenic suppressor of his4 initiation codon mutations, exhibits extensive sequence identity with human eIF-2 beta, especially in the polylysine and zinc finger domains, thereby reinforcing the view that these elements are important for function [7].
  • The polylysine blocks and the zinc finger motif suggest that eIF-2 beta interacts with RNA [7].
  • The protein possesses putative GTP-binding sites, a zinc finger motif, and a highly charged N-terminal region composed of three basic polylysine blocks separated by acidic domains [7].
  • The 14C-sucrose-labeled peptides that arose upon degradation of the added 14C-sucBSA polylysine accumulated exclusively within lysosomes [8].
  • After a 1 hr pulse of dense amino acids and 3H-lysine, nucleosomes were isolated from chick myoblast organ cultures, and the histones were cross-linked to octamers [9].

Chemical compound and disease context of lysine


Biological context of lysine


Anatomical context of lysine


Associations of lysine with other chemical compounds

  • New Zealand White rabbits immunized with covalent conjugates prepared from polylysine and the O-carboxy-methyloxime derivatives of either aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) or an analogue, 5,7-dimethoxycyclopentenon (2,3-c) coumarin, produced antibodies that bind 3H-AFB1 [22].
  • Immunocytochemistry using a mAb to phosphorylated tyrosine residues revealed intense staining of the tips of most filopodia of Aplysia axons growing slowly on a polylysine substrate, but of few filopodia of axons growing rapidly on a substrate coated with Aplysia hemolymph, which has growth-promoting material [23].
  • The most efficient compound identified, polyarginine (pArg), enhanced peptide delivery by more than 2 logs as compared with cells treated with peptide alone, whereas polylysine (pLys) treatment resulted in approximately 10-fold increased levels of fluorescence [24].
  • Whereas peptide uptake mediated by pLys appears to be due to an at least transient permeabilization of cell membranes, peptide delivery in the presence of pArg may rely on endocytic processes [24].
  • Stimulation of phosphorylation of lipocortin at threonine residues by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the EGF receptor: addition of protein kinase P with polylysine inhibits this effect [25].
  • It is shown that conformational changes could bring Y335 to the target methyl lysine (lysine) for proton abstraction [26].

Gene context of lysine

  • Here we examined the requirement of the C2A polylysine motif for Syt 1 interaction with the cardiac Cav1.2 (L-type) and the neuronal Cav2.3 (R-type) voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, two channels required for neurotransmission [27].
  • GRK5 can also be activated by polycations, with 10 microM polylysine promoting an approximately 2.6-fold activation [28].
  • The carboxy terminus of p53 mimics the polylysine effect of protein kinase CK2-catalyzed MDM2 phosphorylation [29].
  • The coupling of DNA to transferrin via a polycation such as polylysine or via cationic liposomes can target and transfer of the extrogenous DNA particularly into proliferating cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis [30].
  • Phosphopeptide mapping demonstrated that EGFR-13 and polylysine increased phosphorylation of Galpha(s) by the EGFR on the same additional sites [31].
  • We report that the euchromatic histone lysine methyltransferase G9a/KMT1C mediates H1.4K26 mono- and dimethylation in vitro and in vivo and thereby provides a recognition surface for the chromatin-binding proteins HP1 and L3MBTL1 [32].
  • Kinetic analysis of PTMs of endogenous RIP140 in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells demonstrates sequential modifications on RIP140, initiated from constitutive lysine methylation, followed by increased arginine methylation later in differentiation [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of lysine

  • Adhesion of cells to surfaces coated with polylysine. Applications to electron microscopy [34].
  • Wheat germ agglutinin- and polylysine-induced cross-linking of glycophorin at the extracellular surface caused 80-95% immobilization of the transmembrane proteins, without affecting the fractional mobility of the lipid probe [35].
  • Second, the technique of freeze-drying molecules on mica (Heuser, J. E., 1983, J. Mol. Biol., 169:155-195) was modified to overcome the low affinity of mica in 2 mM MES, by pretreating the mica with polylysine [36].
  • We tested this effect by releasing neurite attachment to a polylysine-coated surface with polyaspartate, thus shifting external compressive support onto internal elements, and measuring the relative change in MT polymerization using quantitative Western blotting [37].
  • In addition, there is a strong molecular weight dependence in that the small polylysine (Mr 3 x 10(3)) possesses less than 1/20th the cytotoxicity of large polymers (Mr 70 x 10(3)) on a weight basis in both cell culture and animal studies [38].


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  25. Stimulation of phosphorylation of lipocortin at threonine residues by epidermal growth factor (EGF) and the EGF receptor: addition of protein kinase P with polylysine inhibits this effect. Abdel-Ghany, M., Kole, H.K., el Saad, M.A., Racker, E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  26. Mechanism of histone methylation catalyzed by protein lysine methyltransferase SET7/9 and origin of product specificity. Guo, H.B., Guo, H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2007) [Pubmed]
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  32. Dynamic Histone H1 Isotype 4 Methylation and Demethylation by Histone Lysine Methyltransferase G9a/KMT1C and the Jumonji Domain-containing JMJD2/KDM4 Proteins. Trojer, P., Zhang, J., Yonezawa, M., Schmidt, A., Zheng, H., Jenuwein, T., Reinberg, D. J. Biol. Chem. (2009) [Pubmed]
  33. Lysine methylation of nuclear co-repressor receptor interacting protein 140. Huq, M.D., Ha, S.G., Barcelona, H., Wei, L.N. J. Proteome Res. (2009) [Pubmed]
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  38. Antineoplastic activity of poly(L-lysine) with some ascites tumor cells. Arnold, L.J., Dagan, A., Gutheil, J., Kaplan, N.O. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
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